Non-refereed Publications with Abstracts

MOPITT Non-Refereed Publications

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Publication Count by Year

2018

Keller, C. A. P. (2018), Air Quality Modeling Using the NASA GEOS-5 Multispecies Data Assimilation System, [online] Available from: https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20180000781 .
The NASA Goddard Earth Observing System  data assimilation system  has been expanded to include chemically reactive tropospheric trace gases including ozone , nitrogen dioxide , and carbon monoxide . This system combines model analyses from the GEOS-5 model with detailed atmospheric chemistry and observations from MLS , OMI , and MOPITT . We show results from a variety of assimilation test experiments, highlighting the improvements in the representation of model species concentrations by up to 50% compared to an assimilation-free control experiment. Taking into account the rapid chemical cycling of NO2 when applying the assimilation increments greatly improves assimilation skills for NO2 and provides large benefits for model concentrations near the surface. Analysis of the geospatial distribution of the assimilation increments suggest that the free-running model overestimates biomass burning emissions but underestimates lightning NOx emissions by 5-20%. We discuss the capability of the chemical data assimilation system to improve atmospheric composition forecasts through improved initial value and boundary condition inputs, particularly during air pollution events. We find that the current assimilation system meaningfully improves short-term forecasts . For longer-term forecasts more emphasis on updating the emissions instead of initial concentration fields is needed.

2017

Arellano, A., and C. Clerbaux (2017), Multi-Species Analysis of Anthropogenic Pollution Using IASI Data. [online] Available from: https://hal-insu.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01643733 .
In light of rapid urbanization and its impacts on our changing environment, it is imperative that we provide more accurate and consistent analysis of anthropogenic pollution emissions to advance our monitoring, assessment, and predictive capabilities. Here, we explore the use of multiple satellite retrieval products from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instrument on MetOp satellite (in conjunction with retrievals from other instruments like Measurement of Pollution in The Troposphere or MOPITT) towards characterizing and quantifying emissions from anthropogenic pollution. Thus far, the IASI instrument has provided long-term hyperspectral Earth observational records critical to advancing our current capabilities in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP), atmospheric composition monitoring, and climate studies. A suite of multiple regression analysis of available collocated IASI retrievals (e.g., O3, CO, SO2, CO2, CH4, NH3 and aerosols) is conducted to derive seasonal, annual, and decadal chemical ratios over major pollution regions of the world. This analysis is based on an approach originally applied to ambient CO and NOx concentration to infer vehicular emission ratios. Data quality and data filters are systematically assessed to attain a more robust joint analysis on the patterns of these ratios and emergent relationships between species as well as across the pollution regions. Retrieval characteristics (e.g., averaging kernels, error covariances, systematic biases, pixel resolution) are taken into consideration in assessing the information content (and synergies) of these retrievals. Finally, we compare and contrast these patterns with global model simulations and reanalysis (e.g., NCAR’s Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry or CAM-Chem, Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service) to assess the ability of these models to capture these emerging patterns associated with anthropogenic pollution.
Arellano, A. F., Jr., and W. Tang (2017), Sensitivity of CAM-Chem/DART MOPITT CO Assimilation Performance to the Choice of Ensemble System Configuration: A Case Study for Fires in the Amazon, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 33. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.A33A2336A .
Assimilating observational data of chemical constituents into a modeling  system is a powerful approach in assessing changes in atmospheric composition and estimating associated emissions. However, the results of such chemical data assimilation (DA) experiments are largely subject to various key factors such as: a) a priori information, b) error specification and representation, and c) structural biases in the modeling system. Here we investigate the sensitivity of an ensemble-based data assimilation state and emission estimates to these key factors. We focus on investigating the assimilation performance of the Community Earth System Model (CESM)/CAM-Chem with the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) in representing biomass burning plumes in the Amazonia during the 2008 fire season. We conduct the following ensemble DA MOPITT CO experiments: 1) use of monthly-average NCAR’s FINN surface fire emissionss, 2) use of daily FINN surface fire emissions, 3) use of daily FINN emissions with climatological injection heights, and 4) use of perturbed FINN emission parameters to represent not only the uncertainties in combustion activity but also in combustion efficiency. We show key diagnostics of assimilation performance for these experiments and verify with available ground-based and aircraft-based measurements.
Arellano, A. F., Jr., W. Tang, S. J. Silva, and A. Raman (2017), Exploring Multiple Constraints of Anthropogenic Pollution, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 41. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.A41N..04A .
It is imperative that we provide more accurate and consistent analysis of anthropogenic pollution emissions at scales that is relevant to air quality, energy, and environmental policy. Here, we present three proof-of-concept studies that explore observational constraints from ground, aircraft, and satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric composition on bulk characteristics of anthropogenic combustion in megacities and fire regions. We focus on jointly analyzing co-emitted combustion products such as CO2, NO2, CO, SO2, and aerosols from GOSAT, OCO-2, OMI, MOPITT, and MODIS retrievals, in conjunction with USEPA AQS and NASA field campaigns. Each of these constituents exhibit distinct atmospheric signatures that depend on fuel type, combustion technology, process, practices and regulatory policies. Our results show that distinguishable patterns and relationships between the increases in concentrations across the megacity (or enhancements) due to emissions of these constituents enable us to: a) identify trends in combustion activity and efficiency, and b) reconcile discrepancies between state- to country-based emission inventories and modeled concentrations of these constituents. For example, the trends in enhancement ratios of these species reveal combustion emission pathways for China and United States that are not captured by current emission inventories and chemical reanalysis. Analysis of their joint distributions has considerable potential utility in current and future integrated constituent data assimilation and inverse modeling activities for monitoring, verifying, and reporting emissions, particularly for regions with few observations and limited information on local combustion processes. This work also motivates the need for continuous and preferably collocated satellite measurements of atmospheric composition, including CH4 and CO2, and studies related to improving the applicability and integration of these observations with ground- and aircraft- based measurements.
Bowman, K. W., J. Liu, N. Parazoo, A. A. Bloom, D. Wunch, Z. Jiang, K. R. Gurney, and D. Schimel (2017), Impact of drought on the North America carbon balance: implications for global carbon mitigation., AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 33. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.B33F..02B .
Drought and heat events are significant contributors to the interanual  variability of terrestrial biosphere carbon flux in temperate North America. In order to be understand the drivers of this variability, we quantified the impact of two drought events in Texas and Mexico in 2011 as wells as the United States Midwest in 2012 on Net Biome Exchange, Gross Primary Productivity, Biomass Burning, and total ecosystem respiration using the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Flux (CMS-Flux) carbon cycle data assimilation system constrained with a suite of satellite observations. The global spatial distribution of NBE was constrained by column CO2 (XCO2) observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) accounting for fossil fuel contributions, while GPP was estimated with Solar Induced Fluorescence (SIF) from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2), and biomass burning was computed from CO emissions constrained by MOPITT. Total ecosystem respiration (TER) was calculated as a residual term. We found that both drought events greatly reduced NBE and GPP during the seasonal peak, but had quite different effects on the annual NBE. Due to the year-long duration of the 2011 Texas-Northern Mexico (Tex-Mex) drought, the annual net uptake was reduced by 0.28 ± 0.10 GtC, which was dominated by the reduction of GPP (-0.34 ± 0.14 GtC). The regional contribution to the atmospheric CO2 growth, which is the sum of fossil fuel emissions and the biosphere net uptake, increased by more than a factor of 3 from an average of  0.09 GtC to 0.30 GtC in 2011. In contrast, a seasonally enhanced NBE in the Midwest partially offset the drought leading to an annual NBE reduction of only 0.16 ± 0.16 GtC. The reduction of net carbon uptake from the 2011 and 2012 drought impact was  50% and  25% respectively of the regional annual fossil fuel emissions. The results show that climate variability needs to be considered in order to relate carbon mitigation strategies to regional and global CO2 growth rates.
Buchholz, R., S. Monks, D. Hammerling, H. Worden, M. Deeter, L. Emmons, and D. Edwards (2017a), Linking the variability of atmospheric carbon monoxide to climate modes in the Southern Hemisphere, vol. 19, p. 11566. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911566B .
Biomass burning is a major driver of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO)  variability in the Southern Hemisphere. The magnitude of emissions, such as CO, from biomass burning is connected to climate through both the availability and dryness of fuel. We investigate the link between CO and climate using satellite measured CO and climate indices. Observations of total column CO from the satellite instrument MOPITT are used to build a record of interannual variability in CO since 2001. Four biomass burning regions in the Southern Hemisphere are explored. Data driven relationships are determined between CO and climate indices for the climate modes: El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD); the Tropical Southern Atlantic (TSA); and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Stepwise forward and backward regression is used to select the best statistical model from combinations of lagged indices. We find evidence for the importance of first-order interaction terms of the climate modes when explaining CO variability. Implications of the model results are discussed for the Maritime Southeast Asia and Australasia regions. We also draw on the chemistry-climate model CAM-chem to explain the source contribution as well as the relative contributions of emissions and meteorology to CO variability.
Buchholz, R. R., D. Hammerling, H. M. Worden, S. A. Monks, D. P. Edwards, M. N. Deeter, and L. K. Emmons (2017b), Climate mode links to atmospheric carbon monoxide over fire regions, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 24. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.A24C..05B .
Fire is a strong contributor to variability in atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO), particularly for the Southern Hemisphere and tropics. The magnitude of emissions, such as CO, from biomass burning are related to climate through both the availability and dryness of fuel. We investigate this link between CO and climate using satellite measured CO and climate indices. Interannual variability in satellite-measured CO is determined for the time period covering 2001-2016. We use MOPITT total column retrievals and focus on biomass burning regions of the Southern Hemisphere and tropics. In each of the regions, data driven relationships are determined between CO and climate indices for the climate modes: El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD); the Tropical Southern Atlantic (TSA); and the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO). Step-wise forward and backward regression combined with the Bayesian Information Criterion is used to select the best predictive model from combinations of lagged indices. We find evidence for the importance of first-order interaction terms of the climate modes when explaining CO variability. Generally, over 50% of the variability can be explained, with over 70% for the Maritime Southeast Asia and North Australasia regions. To help interpret variability, we draw on the chemistry-climate model CAM-chem, which provides information on source contributions and the relative influence of emissions and meteorology. Our results have implications for applications such as air quality forecasting and verifying climate-chemistry models.
Cohen, J. B., R. Lan, C. Lin, D. H. L. Ng, and A. Lim (2017), Integrating multiple remote sensing and surface measurements with models, to quantify and constrain the past decade’s total 4D aerosol source profile and impacts, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 11. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.A11O..07C .
A multi-instrument, inverse modeling approach, is employed to identify  and quantify large-scale global biomass urban aerosol emissions profiles. The approach uses MISR, MODIS, OMI and MOPITT, with data from 2006 to 2016, to generate spatial and temporal loads, as well as some information about composition. The method is able to identify regions impacted by stable urban sources, changing urban sources, intense fires, and linear-combinations. Subsequent quantification is a unified field, leading to a less biased profile, with the result not requiring arbitrary scaling to match long-term means. Additionally, the result reasonably reproduces inter and intra annual variation. Both meso-scale (WRF-CHEM) and global (MIT-AERO, multi-mode, multi-mixing state aerosol model) models of aerosol transport, chemistry, and physics, are used to generate resulting 4D aerosol fields. Comparisons with CALIOP, AERONET, and surface chemical and aerosol networks, provide unbiased confirmation, while column and vertical loadings provide additional feedback. There are three significant results. First, there is a reduction in sources over existing urban areas in East Asia. Second, there is an increase in sources over new urban areas in South, South East, and East Asia. Third, that there is an increase in fire sources in South and South East Asia. There are other initial findings relevant to the global tropics, which have not been as deeply investigated. The results improve the model match with both the mean and variation, which is essential if we hope to understand seasonal extremes. The results also quantify impacts of both local and long-range sources. This is of extreme urgency, in particular in developing nations, where there are considerable contributions from long-range or otherwise unknown sources, that impact hundreds of millions of people throughout Asia. It is hoped that the approach provided here can help us to make critical decisions about total sources, as well as point out the many missing scientific and analytical issues still required to address.
Davies, D. (2017), Expanding NASA’s Land, Atmosphere Near Real-Time Capability for EOS (LANCE), [online] Available from: https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20170012173 .
NASA’s Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS  is a virtual system that provides near real-time EOS data and imagery to meet the needs of scientists and application users interested in monitoring a wide variety of natural and man-made phenomena in near real-time. Over the last year: near real-time data and imagery from MOPITT, MISR, OMPS and VIIRS , the Fire Information for Resource Management System  has been updated and LANCE has begun the process of integrating the Global NRT flood, and Black Marble products. In addition, following the AMSU-A2 instrument anomaly in September 2016, AIRS-only products have replaced the NRT level 2 AIRS+AMSU products. This presentation provides a brief overview of LANCE, describes the new products that are recently available and contains a preview of what to expect in LANCE over the coming year.
Deeter, M. N., L. K. Emmons, S. Martinez-Alonso, S. Tilmes, and C. Wiedinmyer (2017), Satellite-based Analysis of CO Variability over the Amazon Basin, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 21. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.A21D2191D .
Pyrogenic emissions from the Amazon Basin exert significant influence on both climate and air quality but are highly variable from year to year. The ability of models to simulate the impact of biomass burning emissions on downstream atmospheric concentrations depends on (1) the quality of surface flux estimates (i.e., emissions inventories), (2) model dynamics (e.g., horizontal winds, large-scale convection and mixing) and (3) the representation of atmospheric chemical processes. With an atmospheric lifetime of a few months, carbon monoxide (CO) is a commonly used diagnostic for biomass burning. CO products are available from several satellite instruments and allow analyses of CO variability over extended regions such as the Amazon Basin with useful spatial and temporal sampling characteristics. The MOPITT ('Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere’) instrument was launched on the NASA Terra platform near the end of 1999 and is still operational. MOPITT is uniquely capable of measuring tropospheric CO concentrations using both thermal-infrared and near-infrared observations, resulting in the ability to independently retrieve lower- and upper-troposphere CO concentrations. We exploit the 18-year MOPITT record and related datasets to analyze the variability of CO over the Amazon Basin and evaluate simulations performed with the CAM-chem chemical transport model. We demonstrate that observed differences between MOPITT observations and model simulations provide important clues regarding emissions inventories, convective mixing and long-range transport.
Dekker, I., S. Houweling, I. Aben, T. Roeckmann, and M. Krol (2017), Quantification of point sources of carbon monoxide using satellite measurements, vol. 19, p. 13167. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1913167D .
The growth of mega-cities leads to air quality problems directly affecting the citizens. With satellite measurements becoming of higher quality and quantity, satellite instruments can more accurately retrieve the enhanced air pollutant concentrations over large cities. The aim of this research is to quantify carbon monoxide emissions from megacities and their trends using satellite retrievals, combined with an atmospheric chemistry and transport model. Earlier emission estimations of cities have been done using MOPITT satellite data only. To improve the reliability of the emission estimation, we simulate MOPITT retrievals using the Weather Research and Forecast model with chemistry core (WRF-Chem). The difference between model and retrieval is used to optimize CO emissions in WRF-Chem, focusing on the city of Madrid, Spain. A reasonable agreement is obtained between the yearly averaged model output and satellite measurements (R2=0.75) for Madrid. After optimization, the emission of Madrid is reduced by 48% for 2002 and by 17% for 2006 compared with EdgarV4.2. The MOPITT derived emission adjustments lead to a better agreement with a European emission inventory TNO-MAC-III for both years. This suggested that the downward trend in CO emissions over Madrid is overestimated in EdgarV4.2 and more realistically represented in TNO-MAC-III. However, uncertainties remain large using our satellite-based emission estimation method, in the order of 20% for 2002 and 50% for 2006. Therefore, different options to increase the degrees of freedom in the optimization are investigated, to account for the noise in the MOPITT data. We also show comparisons with IASI data, which have a higher temporal resolution. The method is developed for application to Sentinel 5P TROPOMI, to be launched in June 2017.
Edwards, D., J. Barre, H. Worden, and B. Gaubert (2017), Quantifying Wildfire Emissions and associated Aerosol Species using Assimilation of Satellite Carbon Monoxide Retrievals, vol. 19, p. 10508. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910508E .
Intense and costly wildfires tend are predicted to increase in frequency  under a warming climate. For example, the recent August 2015 Washington State fires were the largest in the state’s history. Also in September and October 2015 very intense fires over Indonesia produced some of the highest concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) ever seen from satellite. Such larges fires impact not only the local environment but also affect air quality far downwind through the long-range transport of pollutants. Global to continental scale coverage showing the evolution of CO resulting from fire emission is available from satellite observations. Carbon monoxide is the only atmospheric trace gas for which satellite multispectral retrievals have demonstrated reliable independent profile information close to the surface and also higher in the free troposphere. The unique CO profile product from Terra/MOPITT clearly distinguishes near-surface CO from the free troposphere CO. Also previous studies have suggested strong correlations between primary emissions of fire organic and black carbon aerosols and CO. We will present results from the Ensemble Adjustement Kalman Filter (DART) system that has been developed to assimilate MOPITT CO in the global-scale chemistry-climate model CAM-Chem. The ensemble technique allows inference on various fire model state variables such as CO emissions, and also aerosol species resulting from fires such as organic and black carbon. The benefit of MOPITT CO profile assimilation for estimating the CO emissions from the Washington and Indonesian fire cases will be discussed, along with the ability of the ensemble approach to infer information on the black and organic carbon aerosol distribution. This study builds on capability to quantitatively integrate satellite observations and models developed in recent years through projects funded by the NASA ACMAP Program.
Flemming, J., A. Inness, V. Huijnen, M. Parrington, and R. Engelen (2017), Variability and trends in carbon monoxide for the period 2003-2016 from the CAMS interim reanalysis and model simulations, vol. 19, p. 9127. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.9127F .
The emerging reanalysis data sets of global atmospheric composition are  a new opportunity to detect and understand current trends of atmospheric composition. The reanalyses combine observations of atmospheric composition from satellite instruments, such as CO retrievals from MOPITT and IASI, with atmospheric composition models in a consistent way by means of data assimilation techniques. Within the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) project, ECMWF produced a first reanalysis of atmospheric composition. Now, as part of the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) a further re-analysis of CO, ozone and aerosol at a resolution of about 110 km has been completed. This reanalysis was carried out “interim” in preparation of a more comprehensive CAMS reanalysis. We use the CAMS interim re-analysis to present recent trends (2003-2016) in CO, which were mainly driven by the El-Nino events in conjunction with land-use induced changes in biomass burning as well as trends in anthropogenic emissions. We compare the MACC and CAMS re-analysis with independent in-situ ground-based and aircraft observations of CO and discuss the temporal consistency between the two re-analyses and their usefulness for inferring realistic trends. The comparison of the CAMS re-analysis with a model run without assimilation (control run) is used to show the impact of the data assimilation both with respect to biases but also to spatial variability and trends.
Gaubert B., Worden H. M., Arellano A. F. J., Emmons L. K., Tilmes S., Barré J., Martinez Alonso S., Vitt F., Anderson J. L., Alkemade F., Houweling S., and Edwards D. P. (2017), Chemical Feedback From Decreasing Carbon Monoxide Emissions, Geophysical Research Letters, 44(19), 9985–9995, doi:10.1002/2017GL074987.
Abstract Understanding changes in the burden and growth rate of atmospheric methane (CH4) has been the focus of several recent studies but still lacks scientific consensus. Here we investigate the role of decreasing anthropogenic carbon monoxide (CO) emissions since 2002 on hydroxyl radical (OH) sinks and tropospheric CH4 loss. We quantify this impact by contrasting two model simulations for 2002?2013: (1) a Measurement of the Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) CO reanalysis and (2) a Control?Run without CO assimilation. These simulations are performed with the Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry of the Community Earth System Model fully coupled chemistry climate model with prescribed CH4 surface concentrations. The assimilation of MOPITT observations constrains the global CO burden, which significantly decreased over this period by ~20%. We find that this decrease results to (a) increase in CO chemical production, (b) higher CH4 oxidation by OH, and (c) ~8% shorter CH4 lifetime. We elucidate this coupling by a surrogate mechanism for CO?OH?CH4 that is quantified from the full chemistry simulations.
George, M., C. Clerbaux, J. Hadji-Lazaro, P.-F. Coheur, D. Hurtmans, D. P. Edwards, H. M. Worden, M. N. Deeter, D. Mao, T. August, and M. Crapeau (2017), 2007-2017: 10 years of IASI CO retrievals. [online] Available from: https://hal-insu.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01675267 .
Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important trace gas for understanding air quality and atmospheric composition. It is a good tracer of pollution plumes and atmospheric dynamics. IASI CO concentrations are retrieved from the radiance data using the Fast Operational Retrievals on Layers for IASI (FORLI) algorithm, based on the Optimal Estimation theory. The operational production is performed at EUMETSAT and the products are distributed in NRT via EUMETCast under the AC SAF auspices. We present here an analysis of 10 years of global distributions of CO. Improvements of the last FORLI-CO version (v20151001) will be shown. Updates in the auxiliary parameters (temperature, cloud information) have an impact on the retrieved product. Comparison with MOPITT CO data (v7T, record starting in 2000) was performed, both for partial and total columns. Harmonizing IASI and MOPITT CO products is challenging: a method using corrective factors (developed in the framework of the QA4ECV project) will be presented.
Liu, J., D. Schimel, K. W. Bowman, N. Parazoo, Z. Jiang, M. Lee, A. A. Bloom, D. Wunch, C. Frankenberg, Y. Sun, C. O’Dell, K. R. Gurney, D. Menemenlis, M. M. Gierach, D. Crisp, and A. Eldering (2017), Responses of tropical terrestrial biosphere carbon cycle to the 2015-2016 El Niño, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 51. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.A51M..07L .
The 2015-2016 El Niño, the 2nd strongest since the 1950s, led to  historic high temperature and low precipitation over the tropics while the atmospheric CO2 growth rate was the largest on record. The launch of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) shortly before the 2015-2016 El Niño event provides an opportunity to understand how tropical land carbon fluxes respond to the warm and dry climate characteristics of the El Niño conditions. The El Niño events may also provide a natural experiment to study the response of tropical land carbon fluxes to future climate, since anomalously warm and dry tropical environments typical of El Niño are expected to be more frequent under most emission scenarios. Here we quantified the response of net biosphere exchange (NBE) and biomass burning to these climate anomalies by assimilating column CO2 from Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2, and CO from Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) into an atmospheric inversion framework. We further quantified Gross Primary Production with the Solar Induced Fluorescence (SIF) from GOSAT, and calculated the respiration as a residual term. Relative to the 2011 La Niña, the pantropical biosphere released 2.4 ± 0.34 Gt more carbon into the atmosphere, with an approximately equal distribution over three tropical continents in 2015. However, the dominant processes were different: GPP reduced (0.9 ± 0.22 GtC) in tropical South America, fire increased (0.4 ± 0.10 GtC) in tropical Asia, and respiration increased (0.6 ± 0.34 GtC) in Africa. During the peak of El Nino from the late 2015 to the early 2016, tropical South American had the largest response. We will further discuss the possible lagged-effect of 2015-2016 El Niño on 2017 tropical biosphere carbon fluxes.
Lutsch, E., S. A. Conway, K. Strong, D. B. A. Jones, J. R. Drummond, I. Ortega, J. W. Hannigan, M. Makarova, J. Notholt, T. Blumenstock, R. Sussmann, E. Mahieu, Y. Kasai, and C. Clerbaux (2017), Detection of the long-range transport of wildfire pollution to the Arctic using a network of ground-based FTIR spectrometers, satellite observations and model result, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 42. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.A42C..07L .
We present a multi-year time series of the total columns of carbon  monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and ethane (C2H6) obtained by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer measurements at nine sites. Six are high-latitude sites: Eureka, Nunavut; Ny Alesund, Norway; Thule, Greenland; Kiruna, Sweden; Poker Flat, Alaska and St. Petersburg, Russia and three are mid-latitude sites; Zugspitze, Germany; Jungfraujoch, Switzerland and Toronto, Ontario. For each site, the inter-annual trends and seasonal variabilities of the CO total column time series are accounted for, allowing ambient concentrations to be determined. Enhancements above ambient levels are then used to identify possible wildfire pollution events. Since the abundance of each trace gas species emitted in a wildfire event is specific to the type of vegetation burned and the burning phase, correlations of CO to the other long-lived wildfire tracers HCN and C2H6 allow for further confirmation of the detection of wildfire pollution. Back-trajectories from HYSPLIT and FLEXPART as well as fire detections from the Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) allow the source regions of the detected enhancements to be determined while satellite observations of CO from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instruments can be used to track the transport of the smoke plume. Differences in travel times between sites allows ageing of biomass burning plumes to be determined, providing a means to infer the physical and chemical processes affecting the loss of each species during transport. Comparisons of ground-based FTIR measurements to GEOS-Chem chemical transport model results are used to investigate these processes, evaluate wildfire emission inventories and infer the influence of wildfire emissions on the Arctic.
Martinez-Alonso, S., M. N. Deeter, H. M. Worden, and D. Ziskin (2017), MOPITT Near Real-Time Data for LANCE: Automatic Quality Assurance and Comparison to Operational Products, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 31. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMIN31C0091M .
Terra-MOPITT (the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere  instrument) near real-time (NRT) carbon monoxide (CO) products have been selected for distribution through NASA’s LANCE (the Land, Atmosphere Near Real-Time Capability for EOS). MOPITT version 7 NRT data will be made publicly available within 3 hours from observation. The retrieval process is the same for both MOPITT NRT and operational products, albeit for the former it is constrained to use ancillary data available within the latency time. Among other requirements, LANCE NRT products must be examined for quality assurance (QA) purposes and relative errors between NRT and operational products must be quantified. Here we present an algorithm for automatic MOPITT NRT QA aimed to identify artifacts and separate those from anomalously high but real CO values. The algorithm is based on a comparison to the statistics of MOPITT operational products. We discuss the algorithm’s performance when tested by applying it to three MOPITT datasets: a known (and corrected) artifact in version 4 operational data, anomalously high CO values in operational data during the 2015 Indonesia fires, and actual NRT data. Last, we describe results from a quantitative comparison between MOPITT NRT data and their operational counterparts.
McClure-Begley, A., I. V. Petropavlovskikh, S. Crepinsek, A. Jefferson, L. K. Emmons, and S. J. Oltmans (2017), Changing Conditions in the Arctic: An Analysis of 45 years of Tropospheric Ozone Measurements at Barrow Observatory, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 11. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.A11K2020M .
In order to understand the impact of climate on local bio-systems,  understanding the changes to the atmospheric composition and processes in the Arctic boundary layer and free troposphere is imperative. In the Arctic, many conditions influence tropospheric ozone variability such as: seasonal halogen caused depletion events, long range transport of pollutants from mid-northern latitudes, compounds released from wildfires, and different meteorological conditions. The Barrow station in Utqiagvik, Alaska has collected continuous measurements of ground-level ozone since 1973. This unique long-term time series allows for analysis of the influence of a rapidly changing climate on ozone conditions in this region. Specifically, this study analyzes the frequency of enhanced ozone episodes over time and provides in depth analysis of periods of positive deviations from the expected conditions. To discern the contribution of different pollutant sources to observed ozone variability, co-located measurements of aerosols, carbon monoxide, and meteorological conditions are used. In addition, the NCAR Mozart-4/MOPITT Chemical Forecast model and NOAA Hysplit back-trajectory analysis provide information on transport patterns to the Arctic and confirmation of the emission sources that influenced the observed conditions. These anthropogenic influences on ozone variability in and below the boundary layer are essential for developing an understanding of the interaction of climate change and the bio-systems in the Arctic.
Miyazaki, K., T. Sekiya, D. Fu, K. W. Bowman, S. S. Kulawik, T. Walker, M. Takigawa, K. Ogochi, B. Gaubert, J. Barré, and L. K. Emmons (2017), Application of multi-constituent satellite data assimilation for KORUS-AQ, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 13. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.A13L..08M .
Comprehensive tropospheric maps of multi-constituent fields at 1.1 degree resolution, provided by an assimilation of multiple satellite measurements of O3, CO, NO2, and HNO3 from multiple satellite (OMI, GOME-2, MOPITT, MLS, and AIRS) using an ensemble Kalman filter, are used to study variations in tropospheric composition over east Asia during KORUS-AQ. Assimilated model results for both direct ozone assimilations and assimilations of ozone precursors (NOx and CO) were compared to DC-8 aircraft observations, with significant improvements in model/aircraft comparisons for ozone (the negative model bias was reduced by up to 80 %), CO (by up to 90 %), OH (by up to 40 %), and NOx seen in both approaches. Corrections made to the precursor emissions (i.e., surface NOx and CO emissions), especially over eastern and central China and over South Korea, were important in reducing the negative bias of O3 and CO over South Korea. We obtained additional bias reductions from assimilation of multispectral retrievals of tropospheric ozone profiles from AIRS and OMI, especially for the middle troposphere ozone. Improved agreements with the ground-based measurements at remote sites over South Korea and western Japan suggest that the representation of long-range transport of polluted air is improved by data assimilation, as a result of the optimization of precursor emissions, mainly over China. The higher estimated NOx, by 60-90 % over South Korea and by 20-40 % over eastern China compared to bottom-up inventories, suggests an important underestimation of anthropogenic sources in the emission inventories in these areas. Additional bias reductions were obtained by assimilating the multispectral retrievals, especially for the middle troposphere O3. In the future, assimilating datasets from a new constellation of low Earth orbiting sounders (e.g., IASI, AIRS, CrIS, Sentinel-5p (TROPOMI), and Sentinel-5) and geostationary satellites (Sentinel-4, GEMS, and TEMPO) will provide more detailed knowledge of ozone and its precursors for east Asia and the entire globe. The data assimilation framework will also be used for chemical OSSE studies to evaluate and optimize the current and future observing systems.
Parazoo, N., K. W. Bowman, L. Kuai, J. Liu, M. Lee, I. T. Baker, J. A. Berry, K. J. Davis, T. Lauvaux, J. P. DiGangi, and C. Sweeney (2017), Multi-species constraint of anthropogenic and biogenic processes over North America during ACT-America summer 2016 and winter 2017 aircraft campaigns, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 43. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.A43C2460P .
Multi-species measurements of CO, OCS, and SIF have the potential to  attribute CO2 variability to productivity and anthropogenic emissions. ACT-America aircraft campaigns in summer 2016 and winter 2017 collected vertical profiles of these key species close to their sources, providing important constraints on CO2 sources across 3 unique regions in eastern North America. The CMS-Flux carbon cycle assimilation system uses satellite measurements of CO (MOPITT), CO2 (OCO-2), SIF (OCO-2), and OCS (TES) to determine regional CO2 sources due to fossil fuel emissions, biomass burning, and net biome exchange, providing independent flux constraints, and which can be propagated back to the atmosphere for direct comparison to aircraft data. Here, we evaluate tracer-tracer correlations between CO2, CO, and OCS from ACT-America aircraft data during fall and winter campaigns, and compare to posterior signals from CMS-Flux over the same period. To predict atmospheric OCS signals, we leverage mechanistic representations of OCS plant uptake and GPP in the SiB land surface model to determine OCS-GPP linear relationships, then use SIF optimized estimates of GPP to infer OCS fluxes. Our objectives in this study are 3 fold: (1) Determine consistency of regional source attributions from CMS-Flux with aircraft data from ACT-America; (2) Analyze observed (ACT-America) and predicted (CMS-Flux) tracer-tracer correlations across multiple seasons and regions to identify key biogenic and anthropogenic drivers; (3) Determine to what extent SIF and OCS are valid linear predictors of GPP spatial variability. Summertime evaluation of these tracers shows good correlation between OCS/CO2 and OCS/CO in the midwest but poorer correlation in the northeast possibly reflecting biogenic controls on CO2. Comparisons of observed and predicted CO and CO2 in the PBL with CMF-Flux data indicate positively correlated biases that reflect both transport and flux errors. These results are compared with the winter campaign data to better inform biogenic vs anthropogenic sources, and provide ensemble predictions of OCS from SiB and multi-satellite SIF constraints for more robust analysis of GPP variability.
Park, M., H. M. Worden, L. K. Emmons, and S. Tilmes (2017), Fate of pollution emitted during the 2015 Indonesian Fire Season, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 12. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.A12E..05P .
The El Niño-driven fire season in Indonesia, 2015, is recorded to have the most severe fire emissions since NASA’s Earth Observation System (EOS) satellites started making observations of tropospheric pollutants from space. Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the major pollutants emitted during the fire season, has direct impacts on chemistry in the troposphere as a precursor to ozone O3 and carbon dioxide (CO2) and through interactions with the hydroxyl radical (OH) that increase the lifetime of methane (CH4). The relatively long chemical lifetime of CO (weeks to months) enables long-range transport as well as vertical transport into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region. In this study, measurements of CO from the Terra/MOPITT (Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere) and Aura/MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) are used to characterize the global impact of high CO emitted during the 2015 Indonesian fire season. The MOPITT and MLS instruments together provide a powerful tool for exploring global distributions of CO with overlap in the UTLS region. Simulations of CO from the Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry (CAM-chem) are used to better understand transport pathways of CO from the surface into the lower stratosphere. We find that high concentrations of CO from the September-October 2015 Indonesian fires persisted in the UTLS throughout 2016, much longer than previous years with significant fire emissions.
Rakitin, V., N. Elansky, Y. Shtabkin, A. Dzhola, N. Pankratova, and A. Shilkin (2017), Analysis of CO, CH4 and AOD distributions over Eurasia and estimates of their long-term tendencies based on spectroscopic ground-based and satellite observations, vol. 19, p. 8194. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8194R .
Analysis of the CO and CH4 total column (TC) measurements and AOD data  in urban and background regions of Eurasia for period from 1998 to 2016 years is presented. The trends estimates based on spectroscopic ground-based datasets of OIAP, SPSU, IAP CAC, NPO “Typhoon” and NDACC were compared with similar ones obtained with use of orbital data (MOPITT v6J and AIRS v6). Total decrease of CO TC in both urban (Moscow and Beijing) and background regions (ZSS, Peterhof, Obninsk, European NDACC sites) in 1998-2016 years changed to increase of CO in summer and autumn months in almost all background regions of Northern Eurasia after 2007. Negative trends of AOD were obtained for Europe, West Siberia and China for different seasons (including summer and autumn months) for time periods 2000-2016 and 2007-2016 with using both AERONET and MODIS Terra/Aqua datasets; AOD trends over East Siberia were positive that dui to influence of strong wild fires in 2010-2016 years in Siberia. Rate of CO TC decrease obtained with orbital data using are less than the same for ground based data with factor 1.5-2.0 for both urban and background regions. Rate of CH4 TC increased after 2007 in North-West Eurasian regions and didn’t change in most of North-East regions. The negative AOD trends over Europe and West Siberia indirectly point to non-increase of wild-fires emissions over this region in latest years. Therefore the positive CO TC trends cannot be explained only by increase of wild-fires impact and anthropogenic emissions; possible reasons of such CO tendencies could be the changes in all atmospheric photochemistry system. This work was supported by the Russian Scientific Foundation under grant №14-47-00049 (in part of NDACC, AERONET and satellite trends estimates), under grant №16-17-10275 (in part of analysis of ground-based observations over Moscow and Obninsk) and partially by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant № 16-05-00287 in part of provide of ground-based spectroscopic measurements in Moscow and Beijing sites).
Tang, W., A. F. Arellano Jr., Y. Choi, J. P. DiGangi, J. H. Woo, G. S. Diskin, A. Agusti-panareda, M. Parrington, S. Massart, M. Lee, Y. Kanaya, J. Jang, Y. Lee, J. Hong, J. H. Flynn III, A. M. Thompson, and D. B. Kim (2017), Joint Evaluation of Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) High-resolution Global Near-Real Time CO and CO2 Forecasts during KORUS-AQ Field Campaign, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 53. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.A53A2210T .
Anthropogenic combustion has significant impacts on air quality and  climate. To understand anthropogenic combustion, it is critical to model CO2 and CO (key combustion signatures) and their relationships. In this study, we jointly evaluate the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) free-running 16-km forecast, 9-km forecast initialized with CAMS analysis, and analysis products of CO (80km) and CO2 (40km) to understand how well combustion-related processes and constituent transport are represented in the current system. We use measurements from aircraft, ground sites, and ships during the KORUS-AQ field campaign (May - June 2016), along with satellite observations (MOPITT, IASI, OCO-2, and GOSAT). Airborne measurements by the DC-8 aircraft are classified into five regions: Seoul metropolitan, Taehwa, West Sea, Seoul-Jeju jetway, and Seoul-Busan jetway. The observed CO2, CO, and their relationships varies significantly, and the performance of CAMS products also varies across regions. The three CAMS products perform reasonably well in simulating anthropogenic combustion processes. Overall, CO2 is overestimated while CO is underestimated by CAMS. The 9km forecast product generally has a better performance than the other two, because of its higher model resolution and better initialization conditions. The analysis product also performs better than the 16km forecast. China outflow over West Sea is captured, but CO2 and CO is underestimated in the outflow. According to CAMS, is 10-15 (ppbv/ppmv) for Korea and about 30 for China outflow, indicating anthropogenic combustion in Seoul is more efficient than it is in China. This agrees well with DC-8 aircraft observations. As for ground sites, we find that CO and CO2 measured by the Olympic park and Yonsei (Seoul metropolitan sites) have more regularity in diurnal cycle, and such periodical change is well captured by CAMS. The time series for CO from Baengnyeong, and Fukue (remote sites) are irregular and episodic, which are more related to transport rather than local emissions. CAMS performances over Taehwa site are impacted by both local processes and transport. These comparisons indicate vertical mixing near sources may be an issue for CAMS. Compared to satellite observations, CO analyses show a better agreement, while for CO2, the forecasts are better.
Worden, H., A. Bloom, and J. Worden (2017), Changing distributions of carbon monoxide (CO) over Africa from climate and land use driven fire patterns, vol. 19, p. 10347. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910347W .
Satellite measurements of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) provide a  signature for biomass burning and anthropogenic combustion-related pollution emissions. CO plays an important role in both air quality and climate as a precursor for tropospheric ozone and as a major sink of OH, the atmospheric “detergent” that affects the lifetime of methane and other pollutants. Worden et al., [2013] showed decreasing global CO values in time series of satellite total column CO measurements over the past decade. All of the satellite instruments that measure CO in the thermal infrared showed consistent inter-annual variability due to fires and possibly the global recession in late 2008. Observed decreases in CO over N. America and Europe were consistent with expected decreases in CO emissions inventories [Granier et al., 2011], however, the decrease is not uniform globally. In particular, some regions of Africa show negligible trends in CO. Here we examine the 14-year time series (2002-2015) of surface and total column CO concentrations from MOPITT and fire radiative power (FRP) from MODIS over Africa to study the attribution of changes in CO. We are interested in changes in fires due to climate variability (El Nino) and land-use, including urbanization, and their effect on atmospheric CO burden.
Yin, Y., J. R. Worden, A. A. Bloom, and C. Frankenberg (2017), Contribution of tropical wetland and biomass burning emissions to the methane growth rate: new insights from lower tropospheric partial column retrievals, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 31. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.A31O..07Y .
Atmospheric CH4 concentration stabilized in the early 2000s and began to  increase again since 2007. Recent literature has explored various explanations for possible causes of the growth rate change in CH4 with considerable contradictions among each other, suggesting this problem being ill-conditioned with currently available observations. Satellite observations of CH4 in the near infrared (NIR) with full column sensitivity began with SCIAMACHY (2003-2012) and extend to the present with GOSAT (2009-). Observations in the thermal infrared (TIR) such as from TES (2004-2011) and CrIS (2012-) provide data in the free troposphere. Combining the information pieces from TIR and NIR, we could resolve the lower tropospheric partial column of CH4 that is more sensitive to the surface methane fluxes. Here, using a newly developed lower tropospheric partial column retrieval and supplemented by MOPITT CO retrievals, we discuss the interannual variations of tropical CH4 emissions from wetland and biomass burning respectively, and further, we explore the relationship between those fluxes and climate variability.
Zhang, X., D. B. A. Jones, M. Keller, Z. Jiang, A. E. Bourassa, D. A. Degenstein, C. Clerbaux, and C. Pierre-Francois (2017), Global CO emission estimates inferred from assimilation of MOPITT and IASI CO data, together with observations of O3, NO2, HNO3, and HCHO., AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 33. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.A33A2342Z .
Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) emissions estimated from inverse  modeling analyses exhibit large uncertainties, due, in part, to discrepancies in the tropospheric chemistry in atmospheric models. We attempt to reduce the uncertainties in CO emission estimates by constraining the modeled abundance of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric acid (HNO3), and formaldehyde (HCHO), which are constituents that play a key role in tropospheric chemistry. Using the GEOS-Chem four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system, we estimate CO emissions by assimilating observations of CO from the Measurement of Pollution In the Troposphere (MOPITT) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), together with observations of O3 from the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) and IASI, NO2 and HCHO from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and HNO3 from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). Our experiments evaluate the inferred CO emission estimates from major anthropogenic, biomass burning and biogenic sources. Moreover, we also infer surface emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and isoprene. Our results reveal that this multiple species chemical data assimilation produces a chemical consistent state that effectively adjusts the CO-O3-OH coupling in the model. The O3-induced changes in OH are particularly large in the tropics. Overall, our analysis results in a better constrained tropospheric chemical state.
Zheng, B., F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, Y. Yin, Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, and K. He (2017), Rapid Decline in Carbon Monoxide Emissions and Export from East Asia, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 22. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.A22A..02Z .
MOPITT satellite- and ground-based measurements both suggest of a widespread downward trend in CO concentrations over East Asia during the period 2005-2016. This negative trend is inconsistent with bottom-up inventories of CO emissions, which show a small increase or stable emissions in this region, except for the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC). We try to reconcile the observed CO trend with emission inventories using an inversion of the MOPITT CO data that provides emissions from primary sources, secondary CO production, and chemical sinks of CO. We find that the decreasing trend of -0.41% yr-1 for CO column concentrations over East Asia is mainly due to a -2.51% yr-1 decrease in emissions from primary sources over this region, or a cumulative decline of -32% from 2005 to 2016. This emission decrease is enough to counterbalance the effect of rising concentrations of CH4 in East Asia, that increase the secondary CO formation at a rate of 1.56% yr-1, according to our multispecies inversion. The reducing emissions are mainly contributed by China. The MEIC inventory is the only one to be consistent with the inversion-diagnosed regional decrease of CO emissions. According to this inventory, decreased CO emissions from four main sectors (iron and steel industries, residential sources, gasoline vehicles, and construction materials industries) in China explain 76% of the inversion-based trend of emissions from East Asia. This result suggests that global inventories underestimated the recent decrease of CO emission factors in China which occurred despite the increasing consumption of carbon-based fuels, and is driven by fast technological changes and emission control measures.
Ziskin, D., D. Mao, H. M. Worden, M. N. Deeter, G. D’Attilo, T. Fredrick, S. Martinez-Alonso, G. Francis, and C. Drews (2017), Near Real-Time MOPITT Data - Its Architecture, Obstacles Overcome, and Strategic Decisions, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 31. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMIN31C0090Z .
Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) is an instrument  that has been flying aboard NASA’s Terra satellite and collecting CO data since March 2000. The standard MOPITT product uses ancillary data that can delay its production by several weeks. Furthermore, final processing does not occur until after the annual calibration event, creating a lag of up to a year. In contrast, MOPITT produces a Near Real-Time (NRT) product available through the Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) interface with a latency of less than three hours. This presentation details the architecture of the system, obstacles overcome, and strategic decisions made in order become a LANCE node.

2016

Buchholz, R., P. Edwards, M. Deeter, M. Worden, L. Emmons, B. Jones, T. Griffith, J. Robinson, M. Deutscher, C. Paton-Walsh, A. Velazco, and D. Smale (2016), Investigating transported and local carbon monoxide in the southern hemisphere with satellite and ground-based remote sensing [presentation]. [online] Available from: https://opensky.ucar.edu:/islandora/object/conference%3A3040/ .
Distinguishing the relative contribution of transported and local sources of atmospheric pollution is fundamental to developing realistic air quality policies and providing accurate air quality forecasts. We use the different sensitivities of satellite and ground based remote sensing instruments to provide complementary information about sources of carbon monoxide (CO). Total column amounts of CO are compared between the satellite-borne Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) and ground-based solar FTIR instruments in the TCCON and NDACC measurement networks. Observations are compared at three Southern Hemisphere stations: Darwin and Wollongong in Australia and Lauder in New Zealand. MOPITT has maximum sensitivity in the free troposphere and measurements are used to interpret long-range transport from continental sources. However, satellite measurements provide limited fine-scale information due to sparse measurement timing and spatial averaging, often missing local pollution events. In contrast, ground-based solar-tracking FTIR instruments have enhanced sensitivity closer to the surface, and can help interpret fine-scale chemistry and dynamic influence. However, FTIR measurements are limited to one location and have trouble interpreting transported signals. Anomalies in the CO timeseries from each instrument are discussed in relation to pollution delivery pathways of local, regional and long-distance origin. While large-scale pollution events are captured by both instruments, only the satellite instrument can provide regional and global context. For example, the wider geographical impact of Australian fires, such as the severe bushfires around Canberra in 2003, can be traced in the satellite observations and resulting CO plumes tracked out across the Pacific Ocean. MOPITT can also be used to track long-range transport of pollution from biomass burning in South America and southern Africa, reflecting the hemispheric impact of these sources. In comparison, the FTIR can additionally capture local urban and biomass burning influences. Seasonal and interannual variability of CO is significantly different at each site. The roles of emissions and meteorology in CO variability is investigated using global atmospheric modeling with CAM-chem. These modeling studies help quantify the relative impact of local and remote pollution sources to total column CO at the three stations.
Doumbia, E. H. T., C. Granier, K. Sindelarova, S. Tilmes, I. Bouarar, L. Emmons, A. Richter, A. Hilboll, J.-F. Lamarque, and S. Turnock (2016), Changes in Air Quality in Different World Regions for the Past Decades: analyses using chemistry-climate simulations and observations from satellite and monitoring stations. [online] Available from: https://hal-insu.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01380702 .
Surface emissions of atmospheric compounds have changed dramatically in many world regions during the past decades. In this study, we investigate the spatial variability of long-term changes of atmospheric compounds such as carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over the 1980-2010 period, as simulated by the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM4-Chem). Simulated trends are compared with temporal changes derived from different satellite and ground-based observations, with a focus on Europe, North America and Eastern China regions. Results of simulations using the Hadley Centre Coupled Model-United Kingdom Chemistry and Aerosols model (HadGEM3-UKCA) are included in the analyses. Similar negative trends in the CO and NO2 tropospheric columns are generally observed in both CAM4-Chem and HadGEM3-UKCA simulations and measurements, especially in Europe and the USA. Significant model-observation differences in CO and NO2 trends are shown in other regions. During the 2000-2010 period, CAM4-Chem simulated an increase in CO column trends while MOPITT reported a decrease in Eastern China, in contrast with the significant increase in anthropogenic CO emissions during this period. Such differences could be linked to several factors such as uncertainties in the chemical dynamical schemes included in the model, as well as inaccuracies in the satellite retrievals, or in the surface emissions, which mainly drive the CO trends. Temporal changes in tropospheric NO2 columns from model simulations were consistent with satellite observations as well as surface measurements from the US-EPA and EMEP networks in Europe and the USA. However, the magnitudes of modeled trends were generally lower than those from satellite and surface observations.
Drummond, J. (2016), The MOPITT instrument as a Prototype for Long-Term Space-Based Atmospheric Measurements in the Anthropocene, vol. 41. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E.501D .
One of the major characteristics of the Anthropocene will be changes in  all the Earth systems on many timescales. Changes that occur within a generation will be very significant for policy decisions and these will require measurements on corresponding timescales from space-based instruments, but these times are long compared to traditional satellite lifetimes. Whether by luck or by good design there are now a number of satellite missions that are recording data over long time periods. With a single instrument, decadal and longer time series of relevant atmospheric parameters have been achieved and the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument is one such instrument. Launched on 18th December 1999 on the Terra spacecraft, MOPITT has now completed more than 16 years of operation measuring carbon monoxide (CO) over the planet and the mission continues. It is entirely possible that these measurements will span two decades before completion. MOPITT therefore offers a case study of a very long single-instrument time series, albeit one with challenges because this longevity was not part of the original design criteria: The original design specified about a five year life and this has already been considerably exceeded. MOPITT does enable us to look at long term trends and intermittent phenomena over the planet for an extended period of tie encompassing an entire solar cycle and many cycles of El Niño and other quasi-periodic phenomena. This presentation will consider, with examples, some of the advantages and some of the problems of these long-term space measurements with an eye to the future and the needs of future generations. MOPITT was provided to NASA’s Terra spacecraft by the Canadian Space Agency and was built by COMDEV of Cambridge, Ontario. Data processing is performed by the MOPITT team at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO. Instrument control is by the team at the University of Toronto.
Drummond, James, John Paul Hackett, and Dwight Caldwell (2016), Payload aboard Terra Satellite for Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere, in Optical Payloads for Space Missions, edited by Shen-En Qian, Wiley. [online] Available from: https://www.wiley.com/en-us/Optical+Payloads+for+Space+Missions-p-9781118945148 .
Francis, G., K. Cady-Pereira, H. M. Worden, and M. Shephard (2016), Toward a multi-decadal record of satellite CO from MOPITT to Suomi NPP/CrIS: Overview and initial results, San Francisco. [online] Available from: https://opensky.ucar.edu:/islandora/object/conference%3A3177/ .
A prototype optimal estimation CO retrieval framework using CrIS thermal-IR spectra is being developed and undergoing initial testing and evaluation. The goal is construction of a multi-decadal climate-quality data record, consistent with MOPITT, extending into the post-EOS/Terra era, given the planned JPSS mission schedule. The EOS/MOPITT instrument has an ongoing and unprecedented record of CO retrievals since early 2000. CrIS CO offers the potential to significantly extend the MOPITT thermal-IR retrieval record as well as providing expanded spatial coverage. The prototype CrIS CO optimal estimation retrieval system is outlined and initial results described. CO retrievals have been carried out during the fires near Fort McMurray Canada in May 2016, and in the winter-season California Central Valley. These initial CrIS retrievals are in reasonable accord with independent measurements from MOPITT (Fort McMurray: Hi-Res Spectra) and DISCOVER-AQ (CA Central Valley: Low-Res Spectra). This work provides a robust foundation for planned improvements, as well as a demonstration of the utility of this approach to long-term CO record development.
Gaubert, B., A. Arellano, J. Barre, L. Emmons, S. Tilmes, M. Worden, R. Buchholz, C. Wiedinmyer, M. Vitt, S. Martinez-Alonso, P. Edwards, D. Raeder, and L. Anderson (2016a), 10 years of MOPITT reanalysis, [online] Available from: https://opensky.ucar.edu:/islandora/object/conference%3A3088/ .
Gaubert, B., J. Barre, A. Avellano, L. Emmons, S. Tilmes, H. M. Worden, R. Buchholz, C. Wiedinmyer, S. Martinez-Alonso, F. Vitt, D. P. Edwards, K. Raeder, and J. Anderson (2016b), A DART / CAM-Chem reanalysis of MOPITT observations [presentation], [online] Available from: https://opensky.ucar.edu:/islandora/object/conference%3A3043/ .
George, M., C. Clerbaux, J. Hadji-Lazaro, A. Boynard, I. Bouarar, D. Hurtmans, C. Wespes, S. Bauduin, M. V. Damme, S. Whitburn, P.-F. Coheur, D. P. Edwards, M. N. Deeter, H. M. Worden, and A. Inness (2016), What can be seen by IASI during pollution events in East Asia?, pp. A24A-04. [online] Available from: https://hal-insu.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01403392 .
With two IASI instruments flying on the MetOp-A and MetOp-B satellites, any location on Earth is now observed at least four times per day in the infrared spectral range. All cloud free observations are analysed in near real time mode, and a series of gases can be retrieved from the recorded spectra. We will present a detailed study of what can be detected by IASI during pollution events in East Asia. Record levels of CO, tropospheric O3, SO2 and NH3 are measured, and the reliability of the IASI observations will be investigated: what are the concentrations detected throughout the year and when pollution events occur, to what extent is it matching local PM observations, and what is the sensitivity of the IASI observations at the surface. An in-depth analysis will be presented for CO, with comparisons with IAGOS aircraft data and MOPITT v7 satellite data. IASI and MOPITT data are jointly assimilated in the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS) to generate CO pollution forecasts. Examples above East Asia will be shown.
Gibson, A. S., F. Nichitiu, and D. Caldwell (2016), MOPITT Mechanisms 16 Years In-Orbit Operation on TERRA. [online] Available from: https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160008144 .
The 16th anniversary of the launch of NASA’s Terra Spacecraft was marked on December 18, 2015, with the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere  instrument being a successful contributor to the NASA EOS flagship. MOPITT has been enabled by a large suite of mechanisms, allowing the instrument to perform long-duration monitoring of atmospheric carbon monoxide, providing global measurements of this important greenhouse gas for 16 years. Mechanisms have been successfully employed for scanning, cooling of detectors, and to optically modulate the gas path length within the instrument by means of pressure and gas cell length variation. The instrument utilizes these devices to perform correlation spectroscopy, enabling measurements with vertical resolution from the nadir view, and has thereby furthered understanding of source and global transport effects of carbon monoxide. Given the design requirement for a 5.25-year lifetime, the stability and performance of the majority of mechanisms have far surpassed design goals. With 16 continuously operating mechanisms in service on MOPITT, including 12 rotating mechanisms and 4 with linear drive elements, the instrument was an ambitious undertaking. The long life requirements combined with demands for cleanliness and optical stability made for difficult design choices including that of the selection of new lubrication processes. Observations and lessons learned with regards to many aspects of the mechanisms and associated monitoring devices are discussed here. Mechanism behaviors are described, including anomalies, long-term drive current/power, fill pressure, vibration and cold-tip temperature trends. The effectiveness of particular lubrication formulations and the screening method implemented is discussed in relation to continuous rotating mechanisms and stepper motors, which have exceeded 15 billon rotations and 2.5 billion steps respectively. Aspects of gas cell hermeticity, optical cleanliness, heater problems and SEU effects on accelerometers are also discussed.
Martinez-Alonso, S., M. N. Deeter, H. M. Worden, and Y. Mao (2016), Clear-sky performance of MOPITT retrievals using MODIS collection 6 Cloud Mask products, [online] Available from: https://opensky.ucar.edu:/islandora/object/conference%3A3101/ .
We describe improvements in the latest version of MOPITT carbon monoxide (CO) products (v7) to be released in Summer 2016. This will be the first full MOPITT release to utilize MODIS Cloud Mask products from Collection 6 (c6). There has been a sizable increase (~15%) in the number of MOPITT v7 CO retrievals respect to v6. A decreasing trend in the number of MOPITT v6 retrievals since ~2010 (traceable to an issue with MODIS Band 29 resulting in false cloud detections) has been corrected in v7.
Nechita, N., M. Krol, S. Basu, P.-F. Coheur, C. Clerbaux, and T. Röckmann (2016), Joint CO-CO2 inversion setup for investigating the effect of drought on the carbon cycle. [online] Available from: https://hal-insu.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01312615 .
Droughts impact the carbon cycle by enhancing biomass burning, and by reducing the carbon uptake by the biosphere. Droughts are expected to increase under future climate change. Therefore a good understanding of the feedback processes between droughts and the carbon cycle is important for accurately predicting future carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the atmosphere. An important tracer for biomass burning is carbon monoxide (CO). By combining the information from both CO and CO2 satellite data in an inverse modelling setup, it is possible to separately constrain the biomass burning and biosphere atmospheric fluxes of CO2. Within the TM5-4DVAR inverse modelling system, we implemented a joint CO-CO2 inversion setup. The simulated CO and CO2 concentrations were fully coupled, for instance by modelling the CO2 production from oxidation of CO. The biomass burning CO emissions to the atmosphere are further constrained using satellite CO observations from IASI and MOPITT. We use available information on temporally and spatially varying CO:CO2 emission ratios to calculate the direct biomass burning CO2 flux based on derived CO emissions. The CO2 exchange between the biosphere and atmosphere is then inferred using GOSAT satellite measurements. Our inversion setup provides a powerful tool for investigating the ecosystem sensitivity to droughts. We will present first results of the coupled system, focusing on the regional effect of the 2010 drought event in Russia.
Palve, S. N., P. D. N. Dr, and S. D. G. Dr (2016), The application of remote sensing techniques for air pollution analysis and climate change on Indian subcontinent, IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci., 37(1), 012076, doi:10.1088/1755-1315/37/1/012076.
India is home to an extraordinary variety of climatic regions, ranging from tropical in the south to temperate and alpine in the Himalayan north, where elevated regions receive sustained winter snowfall. The subcontinent is characterized by high levels of air pollution due to intensively developing industries and mass fuel consumption for domestic purposes. The main tropospheric pollutants (O 3 , NO 2 , CO, formaldehyde (HCHO) and SO 2 ) and two major greenhouse gases (tropospheric O 3 and methane (CH 4 )) and important parameters of aerosols, which play a key role in climate change and affecting on the overall well-being of subcontinent residents. In light of considering these facts this paper aims to investigate possible impact of air pollutants over the climate change on Indian subcontinent. Satellite derived column aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a cost effective way to monitor and study aerosols distribution and effects over a long time period. AOD is found to be increasing rapidly since 2000 in summer season that may cause adverse effect to the agricultural crops and also to the human health. Increased aerosol loading may likely affect the rainfall which is responsible for the observed drought conditions over the Indian subcontinent. Carbon monoxide is emitted into the atmosphere by biomass burning activities and India is the second largest contributor of CO emissions in Asia. The MOPITT CO retrievals at 850 hPa show large CO emission from the IG region. The development of convective activity associated with the ASM leads to large scale vertical transport of the boundary layer CO from the Indian region into the upper troposphere. TCO over the Indian subcontinent during 2007 has a systematic and gradual variation, spatial as well as temporal. Higher amount of TCO in the northern latitudes and simultaneous lower TCO at near equatorial latitudes indicates depletion of ozone near the equator and accumulation at higher latitudes within the subcontinent. In addition, changes in stratospheric ozone and atmospheric abundances of aerosols alter the energy balance of the climate system.
Simmons, A., J.-L. Fellous, V. Ramaswamy, K. Trenberth, G. Asrar, M. Balmaseda, J. P. Burrows, P. Ciais, M. Drinkwater, P. Friedlingstein, N. Gobron, E. Guilyardi, D. Halpern, M. Heimann, J. Johannessen, P. F. Levelt, E. Lopez-Baeza, J. Penner, R. Scholes, and T. Shepherd (2016), Observation and integrated Earth-system science: A roadmap for 2016–2025, Advances in Space Research, 57(10), 2037–2103, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2016.03.008.
This report is the response to a request by the Committee on Space Research of the International Council for Science to prepare a roadmap on observation and integrated Earth-system science for the coming ten years. Its focus is on the combined use of observations and modelling to address the functioning, predictability and projected evolution of interacting components of the Earth system on timescales out to a century or so. It discusses how observations support integrated Earth-system science and its applications, and identifies planned enhancements to the contributing observing systems and other requirements for observations and their processing. All types of observation are considered, but emphasis is placed on those made from space.  The origins and development of the integrated view of the Earth system are outlined, noting the interactions between the main components that lead to requirements for integrated science and modelling, and for the observations that guide and support them. What constitutes an Earth-system model is discussed. Summaries are given of key cycles within the Earth system.  The nature of Earth observation and the arrangements for international coordination essential for effective operation of global observing systems are introduced. Instances are given of present types of observation, what is already on the roadmap for 2016–2025 and some of the issues to be faced. Observations that are organised on a systematic basis and observations that are made for process understanding and model development, or other research or demonstration purposes, are covered. Specific accounts are given for many of the variables of the Earth system.  The current status and prospects for Earth-system modelling are summarized. The evolution towards applying Earth-system models for environmental monitoring and prediction as well as for climate simulation and projection is outlined. General aspects of the improvement of models, whether through refining the representations of processes that are already incorporated or through adding new processes or components, are discussed. Some important elements of Earth-system models are considered more fully.  Data assimilation is discussed not only because it uses observations and models to generate datasets for monitoring the Earth system and for initiating and evaluating predictions, in particular through reanalysis, but also because of the feedback it provides on the quality of both the observations and the models employed. Inverse methods for surface-flux or model-parameter estimation are also covered. Reviews are given of the way observations and the processed datasets based on them are used for evaluating models, and of the combined use of observations and models for monitoring and interpreting the behaviour of the Earth system and for predicting and projecting its future.  A set of concluding discussions covers general developmental needs, requirements for continuity of space-based observing systems, further long-term requirements for observations and other data, technological advances and data challenges, and the importance of enhanced international co-operation.
Ziskin, D. (2016), MOPITT in LANCE, [online] Available from: https://opensky.ucar.edu:/islandora/object/conference%3A3135/ .
Ziskin, Daniel, Helen Worden, Merritt Deeter, Debbie Mao, Garth D’Attilo, Carl Drews, Tim Fredrick, Gene Francis, Sara Martínez-Alonso, and John Gille (2016), MOPITT in LANCE, San Francisco.

2015

Gaubert, B., O. Andreae, P. Edwards, M. Deeter, L. Anderson, M. Vitt, A. Arellano, J. Barre, M. Worden, R. Buchholz, S. Tilmes, L. Emmons, and C. Wiedinmyer (2015), Towards a chemical reanalysis in a coupled chemistry-climate model: An evaluation of MOPITT CO assimilation and its impact on tropospheric composition [poster]. [online] Available from: https://opensky.ucar.edu:/islandora/object/conference%3A3072/ .
Ziskin, D., M. Deeter, M. Worden, Y. Mao, and V. Dean (2015), Evaluation of meteorology data for MOPITT operational processing [presentation], San Francisco. [online] Available from: https://opensky.ucar.edu:/islandora/object/conference%3A3086/ .

2014

Deeter, M. N., S. Martínez-Alonso, H. M. Worden, L. K. Emmons, V. Dean, D. Mao, D. P. Edwards, and J. C. Gille (2014), Retrieval algorithm development and product validation for TERRA/MOPITT, vol. 9218, pp. 92180P-92180P–7, Proc. SPIE. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2063107 .
Satellite observations of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) are employed in diverse applications including air quality  studies, chemical weather forecasting and the characterization of CO emissions through inverse modeling. The TERRA /  MOPITT ('Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere’) instrument incorporates a set of gas correlation radiometers  to observe CO simultaneously in both a thermal-infrared (TIR) band near 4.7 µm and a near-infrared (NIR) band near  2.3 μm. This multispectral capability is unique to MOPITT. The MOPITT retrieval algorithm for vertical profiles of CO  has been refined almost continuously since TERRA was launched at the end of 1999. Retrieval algorithm enhancements  are the result of ongoing analyses of instrument performance, improved radiative transfer modeling, and systematic  comparisons with correlative data, including in-situ profiles measured from aircraft and products from other satellite  instruments. In the following, we describe the methods used to routinely evaluate MOPITT CO profiles. As the satellite  instrument with the longest record for CO, methods for assessing the long-term stability are becoming increasingly  important.
Srivastava, S. (2014), MOPITT total column CO over the Indian Subcontinent: Spatial variability and long term trend, ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XL8, 323–327, doi:10.5194/isprsarchives-XL-8-323-2014.
Abida, R., J.-L. Attié, L. Elamraoui, and M. N. Deeter (2013), Characterization of carbon monoxide distributions in the lower atmospheric layers during the 2003 heatwave over W. Europe: Assimilation of MOPITT data., vol. 15, p. 12936. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512936A .
During the summer of 2003, Europe experienced one of its hottest periods more likely ever reported during the last 500 years [Luterbacher et al., 2004]. This heatwave period was long enough to very likely help the increase of uncommon boundary layer depth and resulted in the development of an exceptional photochemical pollution episode. Pollution in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) was significantly enhanced during the day. Unusually high carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations originating mostly from local sources and to some extent from biomass burning due to numerous fires over the Northern Hemisphere, were measured by the Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere(MOPITT) instrument during the heatwave period. In this study, we use the Météo-France comprehensive three dimensional chemistry transport model (CTM) MOCAGE and the MOCAGE-PALM assimilation system (Bousserez et al.,2007; Buis et al., 2006) for the analysis of carbon monoxide distributions over the Europe. The MOCAGE model is driven by the ECMWF re-analysis meteorological fields and includes biomass burning emission from GFEDv3 to compute CO concentrations over the Europe domain at the horizontal resolution of 0.2°x0.2°. This domain is a nested domain, which is controlled on the boundaries by the global model at the resolution 2°x2. The latest version available of MOPITT CO data provides information in the lower layers on carbon monoxide distributions. The assimilation of this data, helped to better characterize the distribution of CO concentrations in the lower atmospheric layers, and quantitatively to assess the added value of the MOPIIT instrument in our assimilation system.

2013

Calle, A., P. Salvador, and F. Gonzlez-Alonso (2013), Study of the impact of wildfire emissions, through MOPITT total CO column, at different spatial scales, Int. J. Remote Sens., 34(9–10), 3397–3415, doi:10.1080/01431161.2012.716534.
The estimation of total carbon monoxide (CO) column has been identified as essential to improve our understanding of its role in the global climate system. The Earth Observing System (EOS) Science Steering Committee and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has suggested that a satellite-borne CO sensor, which would operate for extended periods, would be useful for that task. Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), on board the Terra spacecraft, is a correlation radiometer for estimating CO vertical profiles and total CO column in the lower atmosphere, through the thermal radiance received in the 4.7 mu m spectral region. One of the main sources of CO in the atmosphere is the fires and global biomass-burning emissions that are produced when combustion is not complete, especially in the smouldering phase. This article presents a methodology based on a Fourier technique and spatial analysis in order to estimate the total CO column contribution of wildfires at three different spatial scales. First, in a seasonal study, a Mediterranean country (Spain) is selected, and the main regions affected by fire during four years in the summer season are analysed. Second, in order to estimate CO emissions at a local scale, a large fire (in Spain) and a cluster of fires (in North China) are selected. Third, for a global study at large scale and for comparing with CO and carbon dioxide (CO2) data from Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY), locations in North China, equatorial Africa, and Amazonia are selected. Results obtained show that MOPITT data are suitable to assess and to discriminate CO emissions at local spatial scales. Finally, a qualitative agreement between CO behaviour obtained by MOPITT and CO and CO2 obtained by SCIAMACHY is found.
Hao, N., A. Ding, P. Valks, S. Safieddine, C. Clerbaux, and T. Trautmann (2013), Assessment of the Impact of The East Asian Summer Monsoon on the Air Quality Over China from spac, vol. 15, p. 6231. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6231H .
Air pollution is one of the most important environmental problems in developing Asian countries like China. In this region, studies showed that the East Asian monsoon plays a significant role in characterizing the temporal variation and spatial patterns of air pollution, since monsoon is a major atmospheric system affecting air mass transport, convection, and precipitation. Publicly available in situ observations cannot provide sufficient spatial coverage and high consistence in data quality for a long-term period. Therefore, knowledge gaps still exist in the understanding of Asian monsoon impact on the air quality in China under the background of global climate change. Satellite retrievals with high spatial coverage and high consistence for a long period can well document the change of air pollution with monsoon. We apply multi-platform satellite observations by the GOME, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, IASI, GOMOS, MIPAS and MOPITT instruments to analyze tropospheric ozone and CO, precursors of ozone (NOx, HCHO and CH4) and other related trace gases over China. The potential of using the current generation of satellite instruments to monitor air quality changes caused by the East Asian monsoon circulation will be presented. Preliminary comparison results between satellite measurement and ground-based and aircraft measurements will also be showed.
Rajab, J. M., M. Z. Mat Jafri, and H. S. Lim (2013), Measurements of Troposphere Pollution in the Eastern Mediterranean and IRAQ Based on the 2010-2011 MOPITT Satellite Data. [online] Available from: http://www.rast.org.tr/aks/index.php/RAST2013/RAST2013/paper/view/637 .
As the significant indirect greenhouse gas, Carbon monoxide (CO) is the important gas in Earth’s atmosphere due to its influences on the budgets of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and Ozone (O  3  ). We present a study on the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) detection of troposphere CO over eastern Mediterranean (EM) and Iraq, for the past two years (from January 2010 to December 2011), at monthly and  1°x1°        (longitude, latitude) resolution.  T he MOPITT , which was launched aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft on 18 December 1999 , is designed to measure the CO mixing ratio profile retrieval, total CO column amount and CH    4    column amount retrieval.  The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) tendency from dynamics data has been used to construct wind profile at 300 hp. The analysis for dispersed  seven stations  in study area shows the seasonal variation in the troposphere CO fluctuated considerably observed between winter and summer seasons. This is due to the various activities of both eastward and northward winds. The mean and the standard deviation of monthly CO was (81.729 ± 23.9 ppbv) for the entire period. The highest CO occurred on July (105.67 ppbv) at Beirut, and a greater draws down of the CO values were observed over pristine coasts environment on February (57.79 ppbv) at Iskenderun. In addition, elevation in CO values can be observed throughout the year over the regions lower of the Latitude 32° .  The monthly CO VMR maps were generated using Kriging Interpolation technique. The result shows that the Satellite measurements are able to measure the increase of the troposphere CO concentrations over different regions      .
Schultz, C. (2013), First satellite detection of volcanogenic carbon monoxide, Eos Trans. AGU, 94(5), 60–60, doi:10.1002/2013EO050014.
Measuring and tracking the gases that vent from an erupting volcano is a project fraught with potential dangers and difficulties. Taking measurements on the ground places researchers in harm’s way, as does taking airborne samples. These approaches also may suffer from issues around accurately representing the spatial and temporal shifts in gas emissions rates. As such, satellite-based remote sensing techniques are becoming a preferred way to assess the dispersion and concentrations of various volcanic gases. Devising a functional remote sensing scheme, however, depends on identifying a satellite sensor that can reliably identify the chemical species in question and pick the volcanic emissions out from the background concentrations. Such efforts have so far been successful for only a few volcanic gases: sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, and hydrogen sulfide.
Tarasick, D., J. Liu, M. Osman, C. Sioris, X. Liu, O. Najafabadi, M. Parrington, P. Palmer, K. Strawbridge, and T. Duck (2013), Production and Transport of Ozone From Boreal Forest Fires, vol. 15, p. 11967. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511967T .
In the summer of 2010, the BORTAS (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites) mission was planned by several universities and government agencies in the United Kingdom, Canada, and USA. Nearly 100 ozone soundings were made at 13 stations through the BORTAS Intensive Sounding Network, although aircraft measurements were unfortunately cancelled due to the volcanic eruption in Iceland. 2010 was actually an exceptional year for Canadian boreal fires. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) fire count data shows large fire events in Saskatchewan on several days in July. High amounts of NO2 close to the large fires are observed from OMI satellite data, indicating that not all NO2 is converted to PAN. Also associated with the fires, large amounts of CO, another precursor of ozone, are observed in MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere), AIRS and TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) satellite data in the middle to upper troposphere. These chemical conditions combined with sunny weather all favour ozone production. Following days with large fire activity, layers of elevated ozone mixing ratio (over 100 ppbv) are observed downwind at several sites. Back-trajectories suggest the elevated ozone in the profile is traceable to the fires in Saskatchewan. Lidar profiles also detect layers of aerosol at the same heights. However, the layers of high ozone are also associated with low humidity, which is not expected from a combustion source, and suggests the possibility of entrainment of stratospheric air.
Yoon, J., A. Pozzer, and J. Lelieveld (2013), Global trend analysis of surface CO simulated using the global atmospheric chemistry general circulation model, EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy), vol. 15, p. 11868. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511868Y .
Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important trace gas in tropospheric chemistry. It directly influences the concentration of tropospheric hydroxyl radical (OH), and therefore regulates the lifetimes of various tropospheric trace gases. Since anthropogenic activity produces about 60% of the annual global emission of the tropospheric CO, temporal trend analysis of surface CO is needed to understand the increasing (decreasing) influence of humans on the cleansing capacity of the atmosphere. In this study, the global trend of surface CO from 2001 to 2010 was estimated using the EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy for Atmospheric Chemistry) model. The simulation is based on the emission scenario based on RCP8.5 (Representative Concentration Pathways). The global EMAC simulations of monthly surface CO are evaluated with monthly MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) observations (i.e. MOP03TM), and the spatial correlations range from 0.87 to 0.97. The simulated trends are compared with the data from a global surface CO monitoring network, the World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG), which includes also the NOAA/CMDL (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Laboratory of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Cooperative Air Sampling Network. Over the United States and Western Europe, the significant decreases of surface CO are estimated at -49.7±2.7 and -38.6±2.7 ppbv per decade. In contrast, the surface CO increased by +12.4±10.2 and +7.2±3.7 ppbv per decade over South America and South Africa, respectively.

2012

Azuma, Y., M. Nakamura, and M. Kuji (2012), Relationship between trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning in Southeast Asia using satellite and emission data, in Proc. SPIE 8523, Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Clouds, and Precipitation IV, vol. 8523, pp. 85230V-85230V–9, SPIE. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.977326 .
Southeast Asia is one of the biggest regions of biomass burning with forest fires and slash-and-burn farming. From the fire events, a large amount of air pollutants are emitted such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and aerosol (black carbon; BC). Biomass burning generally causes not only local, but also transboundary air pollution, and influences the atmospheric environment in the world accordingly. However, impact of air pollutants’ emissions from large-scale fire in Southeast Asia is not well investigated compared to other regions such as South America and Africa. In this study, characteristics of the atmospheric environment were investigated with correlative analyses among several satellite data (MOPITT, OMI, and MODIS) and emission inventory (GFEDv3) in Southeast Asia from October 2004 to June 2008 on a monthly basis. As a result, it is suggested that the transboundary air pollution from the biomass burning regions occurred over Southeast Asia, which caused specifically higher air pollutants’ concentration at Hanoi, Vietnam in spring dry season.
Sheel, V., A. Richter, S. Srivastava, and S. Lal (2012), Variability of trace gas concentrations over Asian region: satellite observations vs model, vol. 39, p. 1770. [online] Available from: http://adsabs.org/2012cosp.39.1770S .
Nitrogen dioxide (NO_2) and Carbon Monoxide (CO) play a key role in the chemistry of the tropospheric ozone and are emitted mainly by anthropogenic processes. These emissions have been increasing over Asia over the past few years due to rapid economic growth and yet there are very few systematic ground based observations of these species over this region. We have analysed ten years of data from space borne instruments: Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME), SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), which have been measuring the tropospheric abundance of these trace gases. We have examined trends over the period 1996-2008 in NO_2 and CO over a few Indian regions where high economic growth in the present decade is likely to see increased emissions for these species. However, even the highest growth rate of these species seen in the present study, is less when compared with similar polluted regions of China, where a much more rapid increase has been observed. In order to understand the trends and variability in atmospheric trace gas concentrations, one must take into account changes in emissions and transport. Only by assessing the relevance of each of these factors will it be possible to predict future changes with reasonable confidence. To this effect we have used a global chemical transport model, MOZART, to simulate concentrations of NO_2 and CO using the POET (European) and REAS (Asian) emission inventories. These are compared with satellite measurements to study seasonal variations and the discrepancies are discussed. The combined uncertainties of the emission inventory and retrieval of the satellite data could be contributing factors to the discrepancies. It may be thus worthwhile to develop emission inventories for India at a higher resolution to include local level activity data.

2011

Calvin, C. (2011), Tracking pollution from the Wallow wildfire (DI02413) | OpenSky Repository, [online] Available from: https://opensky.ucar.edu/islandora/object/imagegallery%3A2822 .
Audrey, C., F. Chevallier, I. Pison, P. Bousquet, S. Szopa, C. Clerbaux, and M. N. Deeter (2010), Ten years of CO emissions as seen from MOPITT, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, H1.
Satellites data can be combined in sophisticated inversion systems that take the impact of the chemistry of the lower atmosphere into account. In order to improve our knowledge of the emissions of greenhouse gases and of their precursors at the global scale, we have developed a multi-species inversion system of the emission fluxes and 3D-production of the gases involved in the oxidation chain of methane (CH4 ), in particular carbon monoxide (CO) and formaldehyde (HCHO), reacting with hydroxyl radicals (OH). The inverse modelling approach offers an attractive solution to the problem of estimating the gaseous emissions, that allows to correct the prior inventories. For the first time, this study aims at estimating the CO emissions for the past ten years (from March 2000 to December 2009), using our multi-species inversion system and the MOPITT Version 4 retrievals. Our validation strategy consists in comparing our posterior-modelled concentrations with several sets of independent measurements: surface measurements, aircraft and satellite. The posterior emissions, with a global 10-year average of 1368 TgCO/yr, are 37% higher than the prior ones, built from the EDGAR 3.2 and the GFEDv2 inventories (1005 TgCO/yr on average). In addition, they present some significant and challenging seasonal variations in the northern hemisphere that are not present in our prior nor in others major inventories (IPCC AR5, RETRO, EPA, EMEP). Our results exhibit some large interannual variability due to biomass burning emissions, climate, and socioeconomic factors. Indeed, the highest annual budget of the last decade is seen for year 2007 with 1457 TgCO/yr, because of fires over South East Asia and South American Temperate. Then, the CO emissions show a dramatic decrease (1277 TgCO/yr in 2009), that could be connected to the economic recession.

2010

Deeter, M. N., H. M. Worden, L. K. Emmons, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, and J. R. Drummond (2010a), Measuring Boundary-Layer Pollution from Space: MOPITT Multispectral Retrievals of CO During 2010 Russian Fires, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, D4.
Unlike all other satellite instruments capable of measuring tropospheric concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), the MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) instrument on the Earth Observing System Terra platform makes both near-infrared (NIR) and thermal-infrared (TIR) measurements. In principle, this design allows MOPITT to separately retrieve CO concentrations in the lower troposphere and the middle-upper troposphere. Most existing satellite products for CO, including the current V4 MOPITT product, only exploit TIR observations and primarily provide measurements of CO concentrations in the middle and upper troposphere. Complex instrumental-geophysical noise processes affecting the NIR radiances have, so far, prevented their use in operational MOPITT retrieval products. However, recent analysis of the “Level 0” instrument data has revealed that the combined effects of (1) motion of the instrumental field of view and (2) sub-pixel variability of the surface reflectance result in a highly variable source of error in the calibrated radiances. An analysis of MODIS radiance variability supports this concept. New “Version 5” (or V5) MOPITT data processing algorithms have been adapted to quantify this noise term on a pixel by pixel basis and fully account for its effect on the retrieval uncertainties. V5 products based on multispectral (TIR/NIR) observations, featuring enhanced sensitivity to surface-level CO, will soon be produced operationally. An ongoing drought in Russia coupled with anomalous high temperatures produced extensive forest and peat bog fires during the summer of 2010. The resulting pollution created a significant health hazard for residents of large population centers, including Moscow. We will present experimental MOPITT multispectral CO retrieval results over Russia during the summer of 2010. As indicated by the averaging kernels, these retrievals contain at least two independent pieces of CO profile information and exhibit strong sensitivity to boundary-layer CO. Near the fires, surface-level CO concentrations are observed to be many times the background concentration for the region. The presented results demonstrate fundamentally new applications possible with the upcoming V5 MOPITT product.
Deeter, M. N., D. Edwards, G. Francis, J. Gille, H. Worden, and J. Drummond (2010b), The Terra/MOPITT mission: current and future products for carbon monoxide, American Meteorological Society. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/docview/918062629/13F91DDC07C72620AF/7?accountid=28174 .
The Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument on the Earth Observing System Terra platform has now acquired more than ten years of global carbon monoxide (CO) observations, forming the longest satellite record for this important pollutant. MOPITT products are routinely exploited to analyze natural and anthropogenic sources of CO, their variability, chemistry-climate coupling and long-range transport of pollution. MOPITT is uniquely equipped with both thermal-infrared (TIR) and near-infrared (NIR) gas correlation radiometers which together should allow the retrieval of surface-level CO concentrations. Until recently, however, complex geophysical noise processes affecting the NIR radiances prevented their use in MOPITT retrieval products. Thus, the current MOPITT “Version 4” product exploits the TIR radiances only, which are primarily sensitive to CO in the mid troposphere. Recently, our understanding of geophysical noise processes has significantly advanced. Sub-pixel variability of the surface reflectance, which varies greatly from observation to observation, results in random radiance errors typically greater than the pure instrumental noise. Sparsely distributed clouds may also effectively increase noise. MOPITT retrieval algorithms have been adapted to better quantify these radiance errors in the production of NIR and joint TIR/NIR retrieval products. These experimental products exhibit substantially improved sensitivity to surface-level CO and will serve as the basis for future operational MOPITT products. Future products will also incorporate corrections for long-term instrumental degradation, which is believed to cause long-term drift in the current operational retrieval products.
Dijkstra, C., A. Gloudemans, J. de Laat, H. Schrijver, G. van der Werf, M. Krol, and I. Aben (2010), Interannual variability of CO and its relation to long-range transport and biomass burning as seen by SCIAMACHY, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C4.
The SCIAMACHY short-wave infrared instrument on board ENVISAT currently provides over 7 years (2003-2009) of global carbon monoxide (CO) data. The sensitivity of SCIAMACHY to surface CO allows to study sources and sinks. In addition, the availability of SCIAMACHY CO measurements over both land and clouded ocean scenes allows the investigation of long-term variability and global changes in long-range transport. SCIAMACHY CO shows significant interannual variability in the southern hemisphere between 2003 and 2008, which is driven by the year-to-year variability in biomass burning. This is confirmed by the TM4 chemistry transport model which includes the independent GFEDv2 biomass-burning emissions data base. Over Amazonia, a decrease in CO from biomass burning is observed in 2006 compared to earlier years. It was suggested that this was a result of political incentives to reduce fires and deforestation. Unfortunately, SCIAMACHY observes high CO emissions again in 2007 which points more towards climatological conditions that drive the variations in emissions from year to year. In 2008 again a decrease in CO emissions is seen. A similar variability is present in MOPITT CO observations and ground-based FTIR measurements. SCIAMACHY CO from biomass burning in Indonesia also shows significant interannual variability with the largest peak in 2006. This is in agreement with MOPITT observations. Comparison with the ESPI ENSO Index strongly suggests that peaks in CO over Indonesia in the period 2003-2008 coincide with the warm phases of El Nino which led to an extended dry season and an increase in the biomass burning over Indonesia. Using an offline tracer model, the impact of the year-to-year variations in CO from biomass burning in the southern hemisphere has been quantified. Results show that CO over regions influenced by long-range transport display an interannual variability which can be traced back to their CO sources. The CO columns over biomass-burning regions as calculated by the model are however somewhat lower than observed by SCIAMACHY. This suggests that the SCIAMACHY observations can be used to further improve CO emissions inventories. In addition, the relation between CO and the aerosol absorbing index (AAI) is explored, with a particular focus on biomass-burning plumes.
Dupont, R., and J. Worden (2010), Comparison between model and satellite observations using Geos-CHEM and TES carbon monoxide and ozone products, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, D279.
Significant fires across Asia were observed during spring 2008 during the ARCTAS campaign. The emissions of these fires contributed to atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), aerosols, and the production of ozone (O3). In this poster we investigate the emissions and transport of biomass burning plumes using TES and MOPITT data and the GEOS-Chem adjoint. In particular we study the strength of the CO emissions and their transport patterns. Then, these updated CO emissions are used to quantify the impact of these fires on tropospheric O3, CO, CO2, and CH4.
Elguindi, N. (2010), Current status of the ability of the GEMS/MACC models to reproduce the tropospheric CO vertical distribution as measured by MOZAIC, vol. 12, p. 2632.
Vertical profiles of CO taken from the MOZAIC aircraft database are used to present (1) a global analysis of CO seasonal averages and interannual variability for the years 2002-2007 and (2) a global validation of CO estimates produced by the MACC models for 2004, including an assessment of their ability to transport pollutants originating from the Alaskan/Canadian wildfires. Seasonal averages and interannual variability from several MOZAIC sites representing different regions of the world show that CO concentrations are highest and most variable during the winter season. The inter-regional variability is significant with concentrations increasing eastward from Europe to Japan. The impact of the intense boreal fires, particularly in Russia, during the fall of 2002 on the Northern Hemisphere CO concentrations throughout the troposphere is well represented by the MOZAIC data. A global validation of the GEMS/MACC GRG models which include three stand-alone CTMs (MOZART, MOCAGE and TM5) and the coupled ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (IFS)/MOZART model with and without MOPITT CO data assimilation show that the models have a tendency to underestimate CO. The models perform best in Europe and the U.S. where biases range from 0 to -25% in the free troposphere and 0 to -50% in the surface and boundary layers (BL). The biases are largest in the winter and during the daytime when emissions are highest, indicating that current inventories only represent the minimum emissions. Data assimilation is shown to reduce biases by up to 25% in some regions. The models are not able to reproduce well the CO plumes originating from the Alaskan/Canadian wildfires at downwind locations in the eastern U.S. and Europe, not even with assimilation. Sensitivity tests reveal that this is mainly due to deficiencies in the fire emissions inventory and injection height.
Flemming, J., A. Inness, V. Huijnen, N. Elguindi, J. W. Kaiser, O. Stein, and M. G. Schultz (2010), The GEMS global re-analysis of Carbon Monoxide for the period 2003-2008, vol. 12, p. 9515.
A major achievement of the GEMS project is the global re-analysis of atmospheric composition for the period 2003-2008. We will show the inter-annual variability of the CO re-analysis at the continental scale. In particular, the variability introduced by biomass burning will be investigated by comparison with wild fire emission data and meteorological anomalies. We further show how the CO analyses compare against aircraft observations from the MOZAIC project from the whole re-analysis period. The CO re-analysis has been produced by the assimilation of observations from the MOPITT instrument in to the integrated forecast system (IFS) of ECMWF. For reactive gases such as CO, the IFS used the MOZART-3 chemical transport model for the representation of the source and sink processes.
Gille, J., J. Drummond, D. Edwards, M. Deeter, H. Worden, D. Masters, L. Emmons, and G. Pfister (2010), The impact of MOPITT data on tropospheric chemistry, pp. 840–843.
The Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument has provided over 10 years of data on the column amount of carbon monoxide (CO) in the troposphere, with some information on its vertical distribution. These first ever long-term measurements have shown the spatial and temporal variations of CO, clearly displaying the long range transport of CO (which is representative of other gases and aerosols). They have also allowed determination of source locations and strengths, and the separation of annually repeating features from those due to episodic events like boreal fires and fires associated with El Ni #x00F1;o. Work now in progress is incorporating measurements of reflected sunlight to provide more information on CO at the surface.
Gloudemans, A., J. de Laat, R. Dijkstra, H. Schrijver, G. van der Werf, M. Krol, and I. Aben (2010), Interannual variability of CO and its relation to long-range transport and biomass burning as seen by SCIAMACHY, vol. 12, p. 6922.
The SCIAMACHY short-wave infrared instrument on board ENVISAT currently provides over 6 years of global carbon monoxide (CO) data. The sensitivity of SCIAMACHY to surface CO allows to study sources and sinks. In addition, the availability of SCIAMACHY CO measurements over both land and clouded ocean scenes allows the investigation of long-term variability and global changes in long-range transport. SCIAMACHY CO shows significant interannual variability in the southern hemisphere between 2003 and 2008, which is driven by the year-to-year variability in biomass burning. This is confirmed by the TM4 chemistry transport model which includes the independent GFEDv2 biomass-burning emissions data base. Over Amazonia, a decrease in CO from biomass burning is observed in 2006 compared to earlier years. It was suggested that this was a result of political incentives to reduce fires and deforestation. Unfortunately, SCIAMACHY observes high CO emissions again in 2007 which points more towards climatological conditions that drive the variations in emissions from year to year. In 2008 again a decrease in CO emissions is seen. A similar variability is present in MOPITT CO observations and ground-based FTIR measurements. SCIAMACHY CO from biomass burning in Indonesia also shows significant interannual variability with the largest peak in 2006. This is in agreement with MOPITT observations. Comparison with the ESPI ENSO Index strongly suggests that peaks in CO over Indonesia in the period 2003-2008 coincide with the warm phases of El Nino which led to an extended dry season and an increase in the biomass-burning over Indonesia. Using an offline tracer model, the impact of the year-to-year variations in CO from biomass burning in the southern hemisphere has been quantified. Results show that CO over regions influenced by long-range transport display an interannual variability which can be traced back to their CO sources. The CO columns over biomass-burning regions as calculated by the model are however somewhat lower than observed by SCIAMACHY. This suggests that the SCIAMACHY observations can be used to further improve CO emissions inventories.
Hooghiemstra, P., and M. Krol (2010), Inverse modeling of carbon monoxide fluxes, vol. 12, p. 2115.
An inverse modeling framework is used to estimate global emissions of carbon monoxide (CO). In particular, we intend to estimate the magnitude and variability of biomass burning CO emissions because the source strength of these emissions is highly uncertain, and the interannual variability is large. Observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (NOAA/CMDL) surface network are assimilated using a four-dimensional variational (4DVAR) data assimilation system with the transport model TM5 and its adjoint for 2 years. The biomass burning emissions in the model are not released in the lowest layer of the model, but a vertical distribution is applied and 40% of the emissions is released above 1000 m. The optimized emissions are validated with a separate set of surface station data and the new version 4 product of the satellite instrument MOPITT. A sensitivity test will be presented in which the biomass burning emissions are released in the surface layer.
Ito, A. (2010), Biomass Burning Emissions From Large and Mega Fires in East Siberia, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B67.
Catastrophic boreal forest fires of human origin are expected to increase in the future climate, as warmer and dryer conditions in longer fire seasons. The amount of biomass consumed during boreal forest fires can vary significantly because of the large variation in amount of surface organic soil burned. The estimates of boreal forest fire emissions might be evaluated by using atmospheric chemistry transport model (CTM) and satellite observation of carbon monoxide (CO). Even if models agree with the current CO measurements, it would not necessarily guarantee that the models could predict the future fire emission well. However, the model should represent the response of CO to inter-annual changes due to boreal forest fires before extrapolating it to long-term prediction. The ability of models to predict the response of CO to short-term changes can be evaluated in part by examining how ambient concentrations of CO respond to day-to-day variations in East Siberia during two different years of 2002 and 2003 with different fire severity of large and mega fires, respectively. Here we discuss the issues of the representation of boreal fires in an open vegetation burning emission model and chemistry transport model, with a focus on the 2003 Siberian forest fires in contrast with the year 2002. MODIS products of burned area are used to estimate CO emissions from open vegetation burning in conjunction with Dynamic Global Vegetation Model. The combustion factor (CF) and emission factor (EF) for grassland fires are determined from the satellite observation of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), since this accounts for the seasonal and spatial variation in CF and EF. The CF for the organic soil carbon is based on literature values, as a function of the soil moisture and fire severity. Simulations of CTM are performed for daily emissions from boreal forest fires. When the height of a smoke plume is more than the planetary boundary layer (PBL), emissions in the model grid box containing the plume are released to the model layer corresponding to the MISR-derived plume height. Satellite observation of CO from MOPITT is used to evaluate the model performances in simulating temporal and spatial trends in the fire emissions. Both the model result and MOPITT observation capture high mixing ratio of carbon monoxide from Siberian forest fires.
Jiang, Z., D. B. Jones, J. Kar, Y. Wang, M. Kopacz, D. K. Henze, K. Singh, C. Shim, and J. R. Drummond (2010), Inverse Modeling of Urban and Regional Emissions of CO in China using Observations from the MOPITT Instrument, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, D278.
Observations of CO from the MOPITT satellite instrument show enhanced abundances of CO over the Wei River valley in China. High CO mixing ratios, often exceeding 300 ppbv at 800 hPa are observed in the vicinity of Linfen. Simulations of atmospheric CO with the GEOS-Chem model consistently underestimate the observed CO in this region. MOPITT also reveals higher abundances of CO across southeastern China than predicted by GEOS-Chem. Previous inverse modeling of CO observations using the GEOS-Chem model suggested that CO emissions in East Asia were more than 60% greater than the a priori emission inventory estimates in the model. However, that work was done using a version of GEOS-Chem with coarse horizontal resolution. We have conducted an inverse modeling analysis of the MOPITT data at a spatial resolution of 0.5° x 0.67° across Asia, using the adjoint of the nested GEOS-Chem model, to better quantify urban and regional emissions of CO. We focus on quantifying emissions from Xian, Linfen, and Taiyuan, three major industrial cities in the Wei River valley. We also examine the variations in CO emissions in summers of 2006, 2007, and 2008 in the Beijing region to assess the impact of the strict pollution controls that were implemented in August 2008 to improve local air quality for the Olympic Games.
Khlystova, I., M. Schreier, H. Bovensmann, R. Sausen, and J. P. Burrows (2010), A new satellite simulator tool for global model-measurements intercomparisons, vol. 38, p. 125.
A new satellite simulation tool has been developed at the University of Bremen in cooperation with the DLR IPA in Muenchen. The original objective of this tool was to simplify and unify all typical comparison steps performed repeatedly by different research groups for comparisons of the global measurements of an atmospheric trace species with corresponding model fields. To answer the main requirements, the SatSim tool was designed as an extendable (based on concepts of Object-Oriented Programming) and flexible relative to the format of the input data tool. The latter allows the integration of the SatSim into a chemistry-transport model facility as a post-processing routine as well as its independent usage. Additionally, as it has become clear through the development process, SatSim can be also used as a validation tool for different satellite measurements. Being independent of the retrieval procedure, which is required in order to obtain a trace-species information from satellites radiometric measurements, this tool allows comparisons of the modelled fields of several atmospheric trace species as if they were measured by satellite instruments. Such approach provides an insight into the differences of the instrumental measurement precision caused only by the difference in the ground tracks geometry and related differences in the cloud coverage of the observed scenes. An example of the simulated SCIAMACHY and MOPITT CO observations based on the ECHAM5/Messy1 simulated global CO fields will be presented.
Kilic, A., A. Unal, T. Kindap, M. Karaca, and M. N. Khan (2010), Quantification of Shipping Emissions in the Eastern Mediterranean and Comparison with Satellite Observations, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, D270.
Shipping is considered as one of the main emission sources worldwide. Recent studies suggest that, in the Mediterrenean, ship emissions are responsible for 10-50% of black carbon, 2-12% ozone in the surface layer and 5-20% for nitrogen dioxide atmospheric column burden (Marmer et al., 2009). It is, therefore, essential to have an accurate emissions estimation for ships. Marmara Sea, an inland sea connecting the Mediterrenean to the Black Sea, has significant marine activity. Marmara region, surrounding the Marmara Sea, has over 30 million population (including Istanbul megacity) with significant emission sources (e.g., on-road traffic, industry). Emission amounts from ships can be calculated based on two different methodologies, one is according to the total amount of bunker fuels for maritime transport sold which is called top down approach and the other is shipping activity-based bottom-up approach. The top-down estimation method is not suitable for calculations of shipping emissions in Turkey since fuel sales cannot be accurately obtained. Also, top-down approaches possibly have some errors, since data assumptions for the average engine power, engine operating hours and emission factors are the most important uncertain inputs. Previously, a few studies based on bottom-up aproach have been carried on about shipping emissions in Marmara Sea according to the shipping statistics belong to Istanbul and Canakkale Straits and port regions. These studies were mainly depending on very rough assumptions such as avearage ship speed, fixed ships routes, generalized engine types and average fuel consumptions. Deniz C. (2008) estimated shipping emissions in 2003, for Marmara Sea and Turkish Straits as 111,000 tons for NOx, 87,000 tons for SO2, 5,451,000 tons for CO2, 4762 tons for PM. Although- between 2003 and 2008- there is approximately 15% increase in number of ships passsing through Turkish Straits, this study shows that, shippings emissions for the same region are estimated to be more than 3 times of previous studies. In this study, Automatic Information System (AIS) records of marine vessels (having 1 minute temporal resolution) for over 10,000 ships operating at the study area (including Marmara Sea, Istanbul and Canakkale Straits and some parts of Black Sea and Aegian Sea) were obtained from Turkish Undersecretariat for Maritime Affairs for the period between August 2008 and August 2009. These records include the position of the ships, gross tonnage and ship types. Using energy based emission factors for each operation mode, minute-by-minute emissions were estimated. Annual emission totals for merchant ships were estimated as 605,000 tons for NOX; 495,000 tons for SO2; 25,600 tons for HC; 53,300 tons for PM and 29,630,000 tons for CO2. This paper presents the methodology and the findings of the emissions estimates for ships. The results will also be compared to satellite observations. For this purpose, CO measurements from MOPITT and SO2 measurements from OMI will be utilized.
Kim, J. H., S. M. Kim, and M. Newchurch (2010), The analyses of satellite-derived HCHO measurements with statistical approaches, American Meteorological Society. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/918070691/13CF66752BD4FC4275F/4?accountid=28174 .
By comparing temporal and spatial patterns of formaldehyde (HCHO) along with our understanding of atmospheric chemistry, we analyzed satellite data to assess the impact of global temperature changes on the biosphere using satellite observations (OMI, GOME, CIMACHY, MOPITT, ATSR) of trace gases (HCHO, CO, NO2, O3) and fire counts along with model calculations. We have observed an increasing trend of HCHO over the tropics where the trend of biomass burning varies with regions and over the USA where some anthropogenic activity appears to be decreasing as deduced from NO2 changes. The inventory of HCHO depends strongly on isoprene from biogenic activity and on the background level of CH4 oxidation. Various models suggest surface temperature is responsible for the increasing HCHO over the USA. We will discuss to use novel EOF/SVD analyses techniques to investigate whether the increasing trend of HCHO can be used to identify and estimate the impact of global temperature changes on HCHO.
Kopacz, M., D. Jacob, J. Fisher, J. Logan, L. Zhang, I. Megretskaia, R. Yantosca, K. Singh, D. Henze, J. Burrows, M. Buchwitz, I. Khlystova, W. W. McMillan, J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, A. Eldering, V. Thouret, and P. Nedelec (2010), Global estimates of CO sources with high resolution by adjoint inversion of multiple satellite datasets (MOPITT, AIRS, SCIAMACHY, TES), vol. 12, p. 6158.
We combine CO column measurements from the MOPITT, AIRS, SCIAMACHY, and TES satellite instruments in a full-year (May 2004 - April 2005) global inversion of CO sources at 4°x5° spatial resolution and monthly temporal resolution. The inversion uses the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM) and its adjoint applied to MOPITT, AIRS, and SCIAMACHY. Observations from TES, surface sites (NOAA/GMD), and aircraft (MOZAIC) are used for evaluation of the a posteriori solution. Using GEOS-Chem as a common intercomparison platform shows global consistency between the different satellite datasets and with the in situ data. Differences can be largely explained by different averaging kernels and a priori information. The global CO emission from combustion as constrained in the inversion is 1350 Tg/yr. This is much higher than current bottom-up emission inventories. A large fraction of the correction results from a seasonal underestimate of CO sources at northern mid-latitudes in winter and suggests a larger-than-expected CO source from vehicle cold starts and residential heating. Implementing this seasonal variation of emissions solves the long-standing problem of models underestimating CO in the northern extratropics in winter-spring. A posteriori emissions also indicate a general underestimation of biomass burning in the GFED2 inventory. However, the tropical biomass burning constraints are not quantitatively consistent across the different datasets.
Liao, K. J., and V. R. Kotamarthi (2010), EaKF based method for assimilating trace gas and primary aerosols in the GEOS-CHEM model: Preliminary Results, American Meteorological Society. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/918067404/13D67B341417399CE41/3?accountid=28174 .
The availability of measurements of atmospheric chemical constituents from satellite platforms offers an opportunity to better understand changes in tropospheric chemical composition on a global scale through the integration of measurements with predictions from chemical transport models (CTMs). Such integrated approach also helps improve the ability of forecasts of CTMs and arrive at better public policy. We present a global atmospheric data assimilation platform integrating an atmospheric chemical transport model, GEOS-Chem v8-01-01, and a data assimilation package, Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART), developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). In this study, DART is incorporated to GEOS-Chem to create an ensemble adjusted Kalman Filters (EAKF)- enabled assimilation platform. Tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) observation data from the Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) is used in preliminary simulations. We run GEOS-Chem global-scale simulations with 2o by 2.5o resolutions for 2006 summer (Jun-July-August) with eighteen month (January 2005 to May 2006) spin-up simulations. For June 2006 benchmark runs, at the vertical level of 850 hPa, GEOS-Chem simulations show high CO concentrations over southwestern Africa, eastern China and U.S. without data assimilations. When comparing with MOPITT observation data, GEOS-Chem simulations show an underestimation in CO concentrations over the North America while overestimations are found over the Southwest Africa. The bias is likely resulted from emission estimates from those regions. We will present results from the EaKF enabled GEOS-Chem model assimilating the MOPPITT CO using twenty five member ensemble.
Martinez-Alonso, S., M. N. Deeter, J. C. Gille, D. Mao, and H. M. Worden (2010), MOPITT Cloud Detection Adapted to Multispectral CO Retrievals, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, H319.
The MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) instrument, onboard EOS-Terra, is a gas-filter correlation radiometer which -since early 2000- measures upwelling infrared radiation at 4.7 and 2.2-2.3 μm (i.e., in the thermal and near infrared, or TIR and NIR). Carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations and total column amounts are retrieved from these measurements; daily and monthly global tropospheric CO abundances are derived, archived, and made publicly available. MOPITT Version 5 (V5) products to be released in 2011 will feature, for the first time, enhanced sensitivity to surface-level CO by simultaneously exploiting MOPITT’s TIR and NIR observations. All MOPITT products are obtained from cloud-free observations only. The clear/cloudy status of an observation is determined from both MOPITT radiances and a “MODIS Cloud Mask” based on near-simultaneous observations by MODIS (the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), also onboard the EOS-Terra platform. The cloud detection algorithm utilized in preceding MOPITT releases has been revised in V5 to address new requirements introduced by the evolving MOPITT products. We describe the modified cloud detection algorithm in the light of these products. In particular, we discuss 1) sensitivity to clouds of the multispectral retrievals, 2) correlation between residual cloud amounts and apparent geophysical noise in the radiances, and 3) quantitative retrieval validation results affected by clouds.
Pfister, G., C. Wiedinmyer, D. P. Edwards, and L. K. Emmons (2010a), Airmass Characteristics of Surface Air Quality over California, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B8.
We present results from a study that quantifies the impacts of various sources on surface air quality over California. The focus of the analysis is on summer 2008, when the ARCTAS-CARB aircraft campaign, a joint program between NASA and the California Air Resources Board took place. The study integrates the global chemistry transport model MOZART-V4 with the regional WRF-Chem model. Both models employ the same chemistry scheme and emissions allowing for a high level of synergy across model scales. The global model provides time and space varying boundary conditions for the regional simulations. Aircraft measurements from the field campaign will be used together with in-situ observations from ground (U.S. EPA Air Quality Monitoring System) as well as satellite retrievals (e.g. Aura/OMI NO2 and HCHO, Aura/TES CO and O3, Terra/MOPITT CO) for evaluating the model simulations and supporting the analysis. Tracer simulations are performed to estimate the relative impacts of anthropogenic emissions, wildfires and pollution inflow on surface air.
Pfister, G., D. Edwards, and L. Emmons (2010b), Surface Ozone over California: The Influence of Pollution Inflow, vol. 12, p. 5564.
We present results from a study that quantifies the impacts of pollution inflow on surface ozone. The focus of the analysis is on the California region and on summer 2008, when the ARCTAS-CARB aircraft campaign, a joint program between NASA and the California Air Resources Board, took place. The study integrates the global chemistry transport model MOZART-V4 with the regional WRF-Chem model. Both models employ the same chemistry scheme and emissions allowing for a high level of synergy across model scales. The global model provides time and space varying boundary conditions for the regional simulations. Aircraft measurements from the field campaign will be used together with in-situ observations from ground (U.S. EPA Air Quality Monitoring System) as well as satellite retrievals (e.g. Aura/OMI NO2 and HCHO, Aura/TES CO and O3, Terra/MOPITT CO, IASI CO) for evaluating the model simulations and supporting the analysis.
Remedios, J., and V. Kanawade (2010), Identifying urban signatures in MOPITT CO data, vol. 12, p. 12533.
Thermal infra-red nadir instruments have been shown to be capable of varying degrees of vertical profile information, dependent on the species being studied. However, it has been more difficult to demonstrate differentation of the lowermost troposphere using these instruments. It has instead been argued conventionally that the information tends to be more responsive to mixing ratio enhancements in the atmosphere from 850 mb and higher layers, although there is increasing evidence to the contrary. In the present study, it is demonstrated that signatures of urban enhancements can be identified in carbon monoxide (CO) data with good confidence given good diagnostics of the retrieval process, simulations of atmosphere enhancements and a methodology which relies on the natural variability of retrieval sensitivity to different layers in the atmosphere. The platform for this study is provided by CO vertical profile information retrieved operationally from observations by Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument which has provided nearly a decade of data. Previous studies have shown that MOPITT often has sensitivity to the lowermost atmosphere during daytime measurements, particularly when thermal contrast is high (e.g. Deeter et al, 2007). Clerbaux et al, 2008, have also demonstrated that some urban enhancements, associated with particular cities, could be identified in averages of seven years of the surface retrieval level in MOPITT data. However, it has been difficult to develop methodologies which more regularly diagnose and detect urban enhancements in MOPITT data. In the present study we show that a much improved performance is possible by utilising the very differing sensitivity of MOPITT daytime and nighttime retrievals, biasing towards data with higher degrees of freedom for signal, and by accounting for differing a priori information. We find that the most sensitive differentiators for the lowermost atmosphere are the difference between the 700 mb daytime and nighttime monthly averages for V3 data, and between 850 mb and 700 mb monthly averages for V4 data. The method has been validated by simulation of averaging kernels applied to enhanced layer profiles for Indian cities and by assessment of typical TOMCAT profiles. Application of the results to one year of averaged daytime minus nighttime data for 2007 reveals many examples of enhanced CO concentrations in the lowermost troposphere asociated with the locations of nearly 100 urban areas. The results of the study represent a significant step forward in understanding the utility of thermal infra-red species data for investigations of the lowermost troposphere. References Clerbaux, C., Edwards, D., Deeter, M., Emmons, L., Lamarque, J., Tie, X., Massie, S. and Gille, J., Carbon monoxide pollution from cities and urban areas observed by the Terra/MOPITT mission, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35(L03),2008. Deeter, M. N., Edwards, D. P., Gille, J. C. and Drummond, J. R., Sensitivity of MOPITT observations to carbon monoxide in the lower troposphere, J. Geophys. Res., 112(D24), 2007.
Singh, R., and W. Mehdi (2010), Land -Atmosphere -Ionosphere Coupling Associated with Major Earthquakes, vol. 38, p. 364.
Major earthquakes (greater than 5.5 on Richter scale) have shown pronounced changes on land, ocean, atmosphere and ionosphere. Such changes are being monitored using multi sen-sor satellites which use visible and microwave frequencies. Detailed analysis of multi sensor data (AIRS, MOPITT, AMSER, AURA OMI) have been carried out to study surface, skin and air temperature, relative humidity, water vapor, carbon monoxide and ozone for prior and after the earthquakes and also for longer period. Satellite derived, ground observed and NCEP re-analysis data show one to one correspondence and also surface, atmospheric and meteoro-logical parameters show complementary nature that provide confidence to believe existence of lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling in some of the recent earthquakes (Gujarat, Wenchuan, Italy, Peru, Haiti). In some of the earthquakes such coupling is not found to exit. Existence of coupling or no coupling associated with earthquakes will be presented. The pres-ence of such coupling provide complementary nature in surface, atmosphere and ionosphere which can be used as reliable earthquake precursors.
Singh, R. P., and P. S. Bhattacharjee (2010), Comparison of Ozone and Water Vapor Retrieved From Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) and AIRS data over Delhi, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, D147.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a key trace gas in tropospheric photochemistry and controls the oxidizing capacity in the troposphere. On oxidation with OH radicals, in turn, could perturb the growth rates of many greenhouse gases such as CH4 and O3. We have used Carbon Monoxide (CO in ppbv), Water (H2O) and ozone (O3) mixing ratio data from Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) over Delhi centrally located in the northern part of India. We have analyzed more than 100 aircraft profile data measured by flights to and from Delhi during period 2003 - 2006. CO from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Measurement of Pollution in the atmosphere (MOPITT), is compared with MOZAIC data. Satellite derived data are found to be be in good agreement with the aircraft data, although the satellite overpass time are not concurrent with aircraft descending/ascending time. CO, H2O and O3 all show prominent seasonal variations and a climatology is produced from the observation data. The seasonal effect on the trace gas concentrations and effect of dust show characteristic behavior.
Song, C., J. Lee, S. Lee, Y. Hong, D. Kim, K. Moon, S. Kim, S. Hong, J. Choi, H. Lee, J. Lee, and W. Choi (2010), A performance evaluation of CMAQ using different satellite data, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, D276.
Evaluation of results simulated by air quality model is needed to ensure that model results are compatible with observations. In this study, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system is assessed for its ability to reproduce column amounts such as total ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO2), and aerosol optical depths (AOD) over the East Asia and Korean peninsula. O3 and NO2 data are from OMI, CO from MOPITT, and AOD from MODIS. CMAQ can simulate monthly and seasonal variations of column amounts. Also, long range transboundary air pollution over the East Asia was reproduced. As a result of the comparisons, air quality model results had similar temporal and spatial patterns with satellite data, but there were some discrepancies with each other. These discrepancies were mainly deduced from emission data, which still have an uncertainty.
Tikhomirov, A., and J. Drummond (2010), a New Gas Correlation Radiometer for Remote Sounding of Carbon Monoxide, vol. 38, p. 8.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is extremely important component of the Earth’s atmosphere since it is an indicator of air quality and plays a great role in tropospheric chemistry. Experimental data about CO mixing ratio distribution are necessary to study long range transport of pollutions and are being used along with models in understanding the CO budget. Remote sounding techniques from space are very advantageous in terms of global monitoring of CO. The gas correlation radiometry method has been successfully employed on a number of satellite based instruments for remote sounding of atmospheric gases for several decades. In this report a new concept of gas correlation radiometer for remote sounding of carbon monoxide from space is described. A length modulated cell, used for the first time with the MOPITT instrument, coupled with a static dual detector per channel architecture underlies the optical design of the new sounder. The main goal of the design is to produce an extremely simple and compact system which will in turn lead to a small space instrument. A laboratory prototype of the radiometer has been built in Dalhousie University. Its characteristics are investigated to verify the new concept. The sources of optical imbalance will be discussed as well as the methods for optical imbalance characterization and minimization. The results of the radiometer calibration and laboratory measurements of CO are presented. This work is supported by the Canadian Space Agency, the Canadian Foundation for Innovation, the Atlantic Innovation Fund/Nova Scotia Research Innovation Trust and Dalhousie University.
Warner, J. X., and Z. Wei (2010), Trend and Variability Analysis of Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide data Records from AIRS and Ground Measurements, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, G3.
The tropospheric carbon monoxide products from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)/EOS/Aqua have been available for eight years. Various versions of operational products have been distributed from NASA’s GES/DISC (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/AIRS/index.html). We have also developed an alternative algorithm for AIRS CO products using the Optimal Estimation (OE) method, which is different from AIRS operational products. We use AIRS operational L2 meteorological and ozone profiles and the cloud-cleared radiances as input to the OE algorithm. The output from the OE retrieval system not only includes global CO profiles as does by AIRS operational products, but also provides the Averaging Kernels (AKs), the error covariance matrices, and the degrees of freedom for signals (DOFS) that are computed using a similar formulation as in other satellite CO products such as by the EOS MOPITT and TES. The CO products have undergone validations against in situ measurements and have been intercompared with MOPITT and TES CO. WE present here a global trend and variability analysis using both AIRS operational and OE CO jointly with NOAA’s GMD in situ data and ground FTIR spectrometer measurements from the NCACC network.
Wolfe, R. E., and H. K. Ramapriyan (2010), Scaling the pipe: NASA EOS Terra data systems at 10, pp. 1300–1303.
Standard products from the five sensors on NASA’s Earth Observing System’s (EOS) Terra satellite are being used world-wide for earth science research and applications. This paper describes the evolution of the Terra data systems over the last decade in which the distributed systems that produce, archive and distribute high quality Terra data products were scaled by two orders of magnitude.
Worden, H., M. Deeter, D. Edwards, and J. Gille (2010a), Multispectral measurements of boundary layer CO from MOPITT, vol. 12, p. 2874.
Using both thermal infrared (TIR) and near infrared (NIR) channels of MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) on EOS-Terra we demonstrate the first multi-spectral retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO) from space. Exploiting both TIR and NIR channels has been possible due to recent advances in understanding the MOPITT instrumental-geophysical radiance errors associated with sub-pixel variability of the surface reflectance. These observations show a large increase in sensitivity to boundary layer CO over currently available TIR-only measurements and have the potential for significantly improving emissions estimates. Since CO is relatively long-lived (∼ 3 months), satellite observations of CO have long been used as a tracer for atmospheric pollution transport. These multispectral measurements will add new information about transport processes from the boundary layer to free troposphere.
Worden, H. M., Y. Cheng, G. Pfister, G. Carmichael, M. N. Deeter, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, Q. Zhang, and D. G. Streets (2010b), Comparison of near-surface CO from multispectral measurements from MOPITT with WRF-Chem simulations using emissions inventory for the Beijing 2008 Olympics, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B4.
We present initial comparisons of MOPITT multispectral (TIR + NIR) CO measurements with WRF-Chem simulations for the Beijing Olympics in August 2008. The Chinese government made a significant effort to improve air quality during the Olympics by controlling pollution emissions around Beijing before and during Olympics. A new emissions inventory has been created to account for these controls and implemented in WRF-chem. The inventory is specific for pollution sectors such as power, industry, transport and domestic, with corresponding emission factors. By comparing to the MOPITT data, we can test the model predictions for CO and derive improved emissions estimates, then potentially use the emission factors to infer the corresponding reduction in CO2 emissions during the Olympics.

2009

Arellano, A. F., D. P. Edwards, and M. N. Deeter (2009), On the Use of Linearized Measurements from Satellite Observing Systems for Global Air Quality Forecasting, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A248.
As satellites are at the forefront in numerical weather prediction (NWP), future observations of tropospheric constituents from geostationary satellites will play a major role in regional-to-global air quality forecasting (AQF) systems. These observations provide a wealth of information that fully complements current AQF capability. However, the potential for higher spatio-temporal and spectral resolution of these observations entails a more efficient and practical AQF system that can handle and effectively assimilate the large volume of data in operational mode. This includes a reasonably accurate radiative transfer model (RTM) within the AQF system to calculate the observation operator across multiple spectral measurements. In addition, some practical forms of reducing the data without significant loss of information must be implemented for computational expediency. Here, we explore the applicability of using a reduced form of linearized measurements as input to the AQF system. In particular, we revisit the concept of using the Jacobians, which are calculated nonetheless during the retrieval of these constituents, in lieu of a full RTM calculation within the AQF system. A singular-value-decomposition of the Jacobian can then be carried out for each measurement to reduce the volume of data to be assimilated. This concept serves as a practical alternative to conventional approaches like full radiance or retrieval data assimilation. We demonstrate the applicability of this concept using the radiance measurements from the NASA/Terra Measurement of Pollution In The Troposphere instrument (MOPITT) and the corresponding Jacobians from the MOPITTv4 retrieval algorithm. Assimilation experiments are carried out under an ensemble-based chemical data assimilation framework that mimics an advance AQF system. We show results of the assimilation and comparisons with results from a retrieval assimilation of the same data.
August, T., P. Schluessel, R. Munro, T. Hultberg, O. Oduleye, X. Calbet, and A. Arriaga (2009), Carbon monoxide retrieval within the operational IASI level 2 processor, training and validation results, EUMETSAT, Am Kavalleriesand 31 Darmstadt D-64295 Germany. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/21387364/13D6CD9A7AC654112B3/7?accountid=28174 .
The carbon monoxide total column retrieval operated in the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) L2 processor was revised and the upgraded algorithm is presented here. The modifications aimed at improving the retrieval accuracy, at correcting an angular dependency and enabling inversions over specific elevated or desert areas. We describe the algorithmic changes in this paper and present their theoretical performances together with initial validation results performed with external CO products from the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) mission. They confirm the overall improvements with typical differences of approximately 0.25x10 super(18) molecules/cm super(2).
Bhattacharjee, P. S., and R. P. Singh (2009), Dynamics of trace gases and aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic plain, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, D153.
Recent satellite and ground observations have identified, Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) as a strong source of aerosol and other trace gases. The dynamics of the aerosol is highly dependent on the season. The increasing particulate matter and other toxic gas emissions over the northern India are attributed to the increasing population density and anthropogenic activities since last three decades. In the present study, we have selected four Indian cities over the IGP (Delhi, Kanpur, Patna and Kolkata), spanning west to east to show the maxima peaks of the trace gases depend strongly on types of emission, chemistry of the species and meteorological conditions. We have used Carbon Monoxide (CO) from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Measurement of Pollution in the atmosphere (MOPITT), tropospheric NO2 from Ozone Measuring Instrument (OMI) and tropospheric ozone product for the period 2003-08. Total column CO is found to be higher in the eastern IGP during winter season compared to the western parts, likely due to intense use of bio-fuel. The annual mean CO is found to be highest in the month of March over Kolkata, at the eastern most location of IGP, whereas higher CO is found in the months of April and May over Delhi, a western most location of the IGP. The reversal nature of maxima CO peaks observed over the two extreme ends of IGP can be explained by the water vapor concentrations that play an important role in destruction of CO. Further, we will discuss the role of dust during April - May in enhancing the CO at the pressure levels 800 to 500 hpa at the western parts of IGP.
Chambers, L. H., J. D. Fischer, P. M. Lewis, S. W. Moore, P. C. Oots, T. M. Rogerson, K. M. Hitke, and H. Riebeek (2009), Terra in K-16 formal education settings, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A40.
Since it began, the Terra mission has had an active presence in formal education at the K-16 level. This educational presence was provided through the S’COOL project for the first five years of the mission, joined by the MY NASA DATA project for the second five years. The Students’ Cloud Observations On-Line (S’COOL) Project, begun in 1997 under the auspices of the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, seeks to motivate students across the entire K-12 spectrum to learn science basics and how they tie in to a larger picture. Beginning early on, college level participants have also participated in the project, both in science classes and in science education coursework. The project uses the connection to an on-going NASA science investigation as a powerful motivator for student observations, analysis and learning, and has reached around the globe as shown in the world map. This poster will review the impact that Terra, through S’COOL, has made in formal education over the last decade. The MY NASA DATA Project began in 2004 under the NASA Research, Education and Applications Solutions Network (REASoN). A 5-year REASoN grant enabled the creation of an extensive website which wraps easily accessible Earth science data - including Terra parameters from CERES (involving MODIS data fusion), MISR, and MOPITT (an example for carbon monoxide is given in the graph, with dark areas indicating high CO levels) - with explanatory material written at the middle school level, and an extensive collection of peer-reviewed lesson plans. The MY NASA DATA site has a rapidly growing user-base and was recently adopted by a number of NASA Earth Science missions, in addition to Terra, as a formal education arm of their Education and Public Outreach efforts. This poster will summarize the contributions that Terra, through MY NASA DATA, has made to formal education since 2004.
Choi, Y., G. Osterman, A. Eldering, Y. Wang, and E. Edgerton (2009), Enhancements in tropospheric CO from biogenic VOC emissions over North America and the western Atlantic Ocean using TES and MOPITT measurements, American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St. Boston MA 02108-3693 USA, Phoeniz, AZ. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/21070969/13D5840306225CE9840/3?accountid=28174 .
We investigate the effects of enhancements in biogenic VOC emissions on tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) over North America and the western North Atlantic Ocean during July 2006. This analysis is performed using the 3D Regional chEmical trAnsport Model (REAM) along with the data from TES on the NASA Aura satellite, MOPITT on the NASA Terra satellite, and surface monitor data from the SEARCH network. The key factors affecting summertime CO variations and continental outflow from North America are evaluated. The REAM simulations exhibit large enhancements in column CO observed by MOPITT and lower tropospheric CO seen by TES due to biogenic VOC emissions over the southeastern United States and the western Atlantic Ocean in the hot summer of 2006, which is the 3rd warmest on record. They are used to analyze the spatial impacts of biogenic sources on the lower and free tropospheric CO (<70 ppbv) from the TES measurements. The regions of enhanced CO observed from in-situ ground and satellite measurements during the summer are primarily driven by biogenic-derived CO productions, with the impact of biogenic sources larger than that of anthropogenic sources. The relative importance of biogenic sources over anthropogenic sources over the United States, Canada, and their neighboring Atlantic Ocean is becoming greater as fossil fuel CO emissions decreases. In addition, lower and upper tropospheric CO enhancements due to biogenic sources and stereotypical deep convection are found using vertical profiles of TES CO measurements, which are also simulated in REAM. The measurements show that TES CO observations could provide constraints on pollutant outflow from the continents.
Deeter, M. N., D. P. Edwards, L. K. Emmons, J. C. Gille, D. S. Masters, H. M. Worden, J. W. Hannigan, R. Batchelor, R. Lindenmaier, K. Strong, T. Blumenstock, F. Hase, and P. C. Novelli (2009), MOPITT Observations of Arctic Tropospheric CO from 2000 - 2009, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A199.
We analyze MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) satellite retrievals of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) over the Arctic from 2000 to 2009 using the new MOPITT Version 4 Product. While retrievals based on nadir-view thermal-infrared radiances are more challenging in the Arctic compared to the Tropics and midlatitude regions, useful retrievals of CO total column can be obtained in most seasons for most regions within the Arctic. The performance of the MOPITT product in Arctic atmospheric conditions is demonstrated through comparisons with CO in-situ profiles obtained at Poker Flat, Alaska and CO total column products from several Arctic ground-based FTIR stations, including Thule (Greenland), Eureka (Canada), and Kiruna (Sweden).
Drummond, J. R., J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, M. N. Deeter, J. Zou, and F. Nichitiu (2009a), Measurements of Carbon Monoxide with the MOPITT Instrument 1999-2009, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A5.
The Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument on the Terra spacecraft is completing ten years of operation measuring carbon monoxide (CO) over the planet. These measurements have demonstrated the changes of CO in both space and time and shown a planet with very large variations in concentrations depending upon events and circumstances. This talk will review the MOPITT dataset and discuss how experience with the MOPITT instrument and with data processing have led to significant improvements in our understanding of the nature of the measurements and their strengths and limitations. These studies have led to improvements in our ability to understand the sensitivity of the measurements to boundary-layer CO (to cite a single example). This presentation leads naturally into a discussion of the future improvements of both of MOPITT instrument datasets and future instruments using similar techniques. MOPITT was provided to the Terra spacecraft by the Canadian Space Agency and was built by COMDEV of Cambridge, Ontario. Data processing is performed by the MOPITT team at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO. Instrument control is by the team at the University of Toronto.
Drummond, J. R., J. C. Gille, M. Deeter, D. Edwards, J. Kar, F. Nichitiu, and J. Zou (2009b), Measurements of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT): Long-Term Measurements of Carbon Monoxide Across the Globe, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, B20.
The MOPITT instrument was launched on the Terra satellite in December 1999. At the present time it is well on the way (9+ years) to providing a decade-long time series of carbon monoxide in the troposphere. This unique dataset has provided us with great insights into the production, distribution and transport of pollutants around the globe. With a long dataset comes the opportunity to look at multiple instances of events such as El Nino and to assess the longer term variations of carbon monoxide (CO) across the globe. This poster will look at what the MOPITT dataset tells us (and does not tell us) about the long-term issues for CO, whether there is such a thing as a ”typical year” and how MOPITT is positioned as it begins a second decade of measurements. The MOPITT instrument was supplied to the Terra spacecraft by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The prime contractor for MOPITT was COMDEV of Cambridge, Ontario. Funding for MOPITT science analysis in Canada has been supplied by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council and the CSA. Data processing in the US has been supported by NASA who also funded the spacecraft.
Gille, J. C., J. R. Drummond, D. P. Edwards, M. N. Deeter, D. S. Masters, L. K. Emmons, G. Pfister, and V. A. Yudin (2009), What 10 Years of MOPITT Data Have Taught Us About Tropospheric Chemistry, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A3.
The launch of the Measurements Of Pollutants In The Troposphere (MOPITT) experiment on Terra ushered in the era of the study of tropospheric chemistry from space. Here we emphasize the new understanding of tropospheric CO, and tropospheric chemistry, made possible by 10 years of MOPITT data. The locations, timing and strengths of sources from biomass burning in the tropics and subtropics have been clarified, and inter-annual variability determined. Similarly, the highly variable but important sources from Boreal fires have also been put on a more quantitative basis. The long-range transports from these sources confirm the intercontinental transports of pollutant species. These data have also spurred the development of techniques for assimilating the data in models, and the use of inverse models to estimate source strengths and locations. The recent release of Version 4 data provides more accurate results than its predecessors. The development of a new version that adds data from reflected NIR to the TIR measurements used to date will improve sensitivity to the boundary layer.
Herron-Thorpe, F., J. Vaughan, G. Mount, L. Emmons, and B. Lamb (2009), Refined analysis of satellite tropospheric products for evaluation and improvement of the AIRPACT-3 air quality forecast system, American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St. Boston MA 02108-3693 USA. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/docview/21147674?accountid=28174.
Satellite measurements of air quality in the Pacific Northwest are compared to results from the AIRPACT-3 regional air quality forecast system which utilizes the WRF/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling suite. Measurements such as tropospheric NO2 and O3 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) as well as CO from AIRS and/or MOPITT instruments are used as a basis for evaluation of the AIRPACT-3 emission inventory in urban areas. The comparison includes incorporation of the averaging kernel employed in the satellite product derivation to improve the basis for comparison with vertical profile model output.
Hooghiemstra, P. B., M. C. Krol, S. Houweling, and J. de Laat (2009), Carbon monoxide from biomass burning, vol. 11, edited by D. N. A. & C. C. Tscherning, p. 3790.
Biomass burning perturbs the atmospheric composition on both regional and global scales. Amongst others, carbon monoxide (CO) is emitted by fires, which is detectable globally by satellites and therefore suited to investigate the impact of biomass burning on the atmospheric composition. We intend to estimate the magnitude, trend and variability of biomass burning CO using an inverse modeling framework, with measurements from both surface stations and satellite observations. Measurements from two satellite instruments will be used to optimize the CO sources: the MOPITT instrument, sensitive to CO in the middle troposphere, and SCIAMACHY, which is more sensitive close to the Earth’s surface where the emissions take place. A first step is to simulate the CO concentrations with a global atmospheric chemistry transport model (TM5) forward in time, given an inventory of CO emissions. The concentration fields are compared to the observed fields from SCIAMACHY and MOPITT.
Human, J. M., and J. E. Box (2009), The Changing Albedo of the Greenland Ice Sheet, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B479.
The study evaluates Greenland ice sheet surface albedo sensitivity to surface melt intensity, air pollution, and precipitation using data from the MODIS and MOPITT sensors operating on the NASA Terra satellite 2000-2009. Precipitation rates are simulated by the Polar WRF climate model running in data assimilation mode. Statistical regression facilitates ranking the relative importance of each of the albedo forcings in space and time. Further, quantitative estimates of the albedo sensitivity to its forcing factors are made, for the first time and over the observed inter-annual range. The work investigates regional patterns in detail to quantify melt water production associated with absorbed solar radiation variability. In-situ records are used to evaluate the cloud radiative effect as another important factor of absorbed solar radiation and ice melt. Insight into Greenland ice sheet melt-precipitation-pollution-albedo feedback is gained, key in better understanding the mass balance response of the ice sheet to future climate change.
Jacob, D. J., C. L. Heald, Y. Liu, E. Drury, and M. Kopacz (2009), Using Terra observations to quantify sources and intercontinental transport of pollution (Invited), AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A2.
Terra measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) from MOPITT and of aerosol optical depths (AODs) from MISR and MODIS have revolutionized our ability to observe pollution on a global scale. In combination with in situ observations and chemical transport models, they have provided a unique resource to quantify pollutant emissions and the importance of intercontinental transport. I will review past and ongoing work in my group targeting these different applications. I will show how data from MOPITT and MODIS, in combination with aircraft observations from TRACE-P, have enabled better understanding of Asian sources of pollution and of transpacific transport to North America. I will show how MISR and MODIS data have been used to map surface concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and how the synthesis of MODIS with data from research aircraft (INTEX-A) and surface sites in North America has enabled improvement of the MODIS AOD retrieval to produce a more powerful aerosol observing system. Finally, I will present recent work integrating MOPITT with CO observations from other satellite instruments (AIRS, TES, SCIAMACHY) in a multi-sensor inversion of global CO sources by the adjoint method.
Jiang, Z., D. B. Jones, M. Kopacz, J. Liu, and D. K. Henze (2009), Quantifying the impact of aggregation errors and model biases on top-down estimates of carbon monoxide emissions using satellite’s observations, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, A5.
We conducted an inverse analysis of atmospheric CO, using the GEOS-Chem model and observations from the MOPITT satellite instrument, to quantify the potential contribution of model error and aggregation errors to top-down source estimates. We focus on quantifying CO emissions for the biomass burning season of 2000. Using a 4-dimensional variational data assimilation scheme, we optimize the CO emissions on the 2°x2.5° grid of the model. The high-resolution, a posteriori source estimates are compared with estimates obtained from a coarse resolution, analytical Bayesian inversion to quantify the impact of aggregation errors in the coarse resolution inversion on the source estimates. We also carry out the coarse resolution analytical inversion using two different versions of the GEOS-Chem model, driven with different transport fields, to isolate the impact on the source estimates of systematic differences in transport in the models.
Jin, J., N. J. Livesey, J. H. Jiang, A. Lupu, Q. Li, J. W. Kaminski, and J. C. McConnell (2009), Seasonal variability of trans-Pacific transport of air pollution in the lower and upper troposphere, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C170.
Multi-year carbon monoxide (CO) measurements made by Aura/MLS (Microwave Limber Sounder) and Terra/MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) are used to investigate the trans-Pacific transport of air pollution. These observations show different seasonal variability of the transport in the lower troposphere and in the upper troposphere. In the lower troposphere the trans-Pacific transport mainly occur in winter and spring. In the upper troposphere, however, the transport occurs in spring and summer. In addition, the transport occurs from sub-tropics to the middle latitudes in the lower troposphere. In the upper troposphere, the transport belt locates at around 30°N in spring and shifts northern-ward in summer along with the movement of the location of the tropopause. The relation between the variability of long-range transport and the variability of biomass burning, anthropogenic pollution, and deep convection over the South and East Asian is also investigated. These observations are also compared with simulations from a global air quality model GEM-AQ (Global Environmental Multi-scale - Air Quality model). In short this study gives an overall look of the trans-Pacific transport of air pollution in the troposphere.
Keppel-Aleks, G., P. O. Wennberg, D. Wunch, G. C. Toon, C. M. Roehl, N. M. Deutscher, and D. W. Griffith (2009), Coincident retrievals of CO and CO2 from high resolution solar absorption spectrometry, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A97.
The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) is a global network of ground-based high-resolution spectrometers. We obtain coincident retrievals of the vertically integrated mass of atmospheric trace species including CH4, N2O, CO, CO2 from near-infrared direct solar absorption spectra. Here, we focus on coincident retrievals of CO and CO2 made at three TCCON sites: Park Falls, Wisconsin; Darwin, Australia; and Pasadena, California. First, we present results that calibrate the retrieved CO total column against aircraft profiles of CO obtained over the observatories and compare to satellite observations of CO from MOPITT. Second, we explore the co-variation between CO and CO2 at each site and use the observations to derive emission ratios for individual fire plumes observed at the sites. Third, we examine the utility of combined total column CO and CO2 observations to constrain regional fluxes of CO2.
Kim, J., R. Park, P. K. Bhartia, S. Yong, C. Song, Y. Hong, S. Lee, S. Ryoo, M. Lee, J. Kim, J. Woo, Y. J. Kim, C. H. Song, J. H. Kim, K. Lee, C. Ho, S. K. Park, Y. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Eom, A. Suh, and Y. Ahn (2009a), Monitoring Air Quality from Geostationary Orbit in Asia-Pacific region by MP-GEOSAT (Invited), AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C1.
To date, atmospheric chemistry measurements have been carried out by many satellite programs to monitor air quality including O3, NO2, SO2, HCHO, CO including OMI, GOME, SCHIAMACHY, MOPITT, and TES. These measurements have provided extensive dataset to monitor daily to annual changes of pollutant distributions, but are lack of capability in detecting the diurnal variation of pollutant’s concentration thus in providing constraints on their sources. Asia, where both anthropogenic and natural sources of pollutants dominate throughout the year, is an important region to understand tropospheric air pollution in global scale. A scanning UV-Visible Spectrometer, named GEMS (Geostationary Environment Spectrometer) is being planned to be launched in 2017-2018 onboard a geostationary satellite, MP-GEOSAT by KARI(Korea Aerospace Research Institute), together with ABI(Advanced Baseline Imager) and GOCI-2 (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager). Synchronous measurements of air pollutants together with the meteorological variables and ocean color information are expected to contribute to better scientific understanding on the distribution and transboundary transportation of air pollution, and on interactions between meteorology and air chemistry in the Asia-Pacific region. This mission is expected to improve the accuracy of air quality forecasting and reduce current discrepancy between the model and observation. Furthermore, constellation of the MP-GEOSAT with GEOCAPE in America and Sentennial-4 in Europe starting in 2017- 2018 time frame can result in great synergistic outcomes including enhancing significantly our understanding in globalization of tropospheric pollution.
Kim, J. H., S. Kim, S. J. Park, and M. Newchurch (2009b), The analyses of satellite-derived HCHO measurements with statistical approaches, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B4.
By comparing temporal and spatial patterns of formaldehyde (HCHO) along with our understanding of atmospheric chemistry, we analyzed satellite data to assess the impact of global temperature changes on the biosphere using satellite observations (OMI, GOME, CIMACHY, MOPITT, ATSR) of trace gases (HCHO, CO, NO2, O3) and fire counts along with model calculations. We have observed an increasing trend of HCHO over the tropics where the trend of biomass burning varies with regions and over the USA where some anthropogenic activity appears to be decreasing as deduced from NO2 changes. The inventory of HCHO depends strongly on isoprene from biogenic activity and on the background level of CH4 oxidation. Various models suggest surface temperature is responsible for the increasing HCHO over the USA. We will discuss to use novel EOF/SVD analyses techniques to investigate whether the increasing trend of HCHO can be used to identify and estimate the impact of global temperature changes on HCHO.
Liu, H., R. Pierce, J. H. Crawford, D. B. Considine, J. A. Al-Saadi, C. Kittaka, M. Hitchman, and G. J. Tripoli (2009), Evaluation of the RAQMS Regional Model During the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A7.
The Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America (INTEX-A) field campaign took place over North America (NA) and the Atlantic during July-August 2004. Among the goals of INTEX-A were to characterize the composition of the troposphere over NA and the outflow of pollution from NA, and to validate satellite observations of tropospheric composition. We test and improve the regional component of the Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMSN) using the comprehensive dataset, including surface, ozonesonde, aircraft, and satellite measurements of ozone and its precursors obtained during INTEX-A. We show that RAQMSN is able to reproduce the major characteristics of tropospheric ozone-CO-NOx-hydrocarbon chemistry over NA during INTEX-A. RAQMSN CO and tropospheric NO2 columns are highly correlated with those of MOPITT and SCIAMACHY, respectively. The model high NO2 bias in the Ohio River Valley reflects the fact that the emission inventory used did not take into account the reduced power plant NOx emissions from this region in 2004 as a result of pollution control programs. The model simulates well the strong day-to-day variability of O3 in the tropopause region as seen in the IONS (INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study) ozonesonde data, but shows more stratospherically influenced air in the upper troposphere (UT). The model is also able to simulate the westerly outflow of O3 to the Atlantic as revealed by the tropospheric ozone residual (TOR, July-August 2005-2008 climatology) data from OMI/MLS. We compare RAQMSN simulations with NASA DC-8 in-situ CO, NO2, O3, and total PAN observations during INTEX-A. The simulated CO is within 10 ppbv of the observations except below 900 hPa where the model is about 40 ppbv too high, consistent with a recent report that the national anthropogenic emission inventory from the US EPA is too high by 60% in summer. While overestimated in the boundary layer, NO2 and PAN are underestimated in the UT. Model lightning NOx emissions are required to be increased by a factor of four in order to match aircraft NO2 observations in the UT, consistent with previous studies. The model O3 is within 10 ppbv of the aircraft observations, except at ∼300 hPa where the model has about 20 ppbv high bias. The model significantly overestimates the EPA AIRNOW surface O3 observations in the Ohio River Valley and Northeast U.S. The effect of reduced NOx emissions in the Ohio River Valley (as constrained by SCIAMACHY NO2 observations), and reduced anthropogenic sources of CO over the United States on the model results will be discussed.
Massie, S., F. Wu, N. Krotkov, P. Levelt, and A. Chu (2009), Satellite observations of SO2, NO2, CO, and aerosol over China, vol. 11, edited by D. N. A. & C. C. Tscherning, p. 3807.
Satellite observations of SO2, NO2, CO, and aerosol over China are related to demographic population density, emissions inventories, industrial production, and thermal power plant geospatial distributions. Similarities and differences in the geospatial distributions of SO2, NO2, CO, and aerosol are identified. Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) SO2 and NO2 atmospheric columns, Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) CO columns, and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depths over China are analyzed during 2005-2007. A comparison of OMI NO2 and University of Columbia gridded population maps indicates a close correspondence between centers of enhanced NO2 and population, with enhanced NO2 and SO2 co-located along the geospatial arc from Shijiazhuang to Luoyang in Hebei, Shanxi, and Henan provinces of China. The region near 35 N and 112 E in northern Henan and southern Shanxi provinces has maxima in NO2, SO2, and CO, which is co-located with power plant number density and population centers. Trends in Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) NO2 over China from 1996 - 2007, and OMI NO2 from 2004-2008, are compared, and placed in context, to other regions of the world. In accord with previous studies, trends in GOME and SCIAMACHY NO2 over China during 1996-2007 are positive, while trends over Europe and the United States are negative. OMI NO2 columns increase by 8.7 % per year over eastern China (20-30 N, 110-123 E) in the winters of 2004-2008.
Masters, D. S., D. Mao, and D. Packman (2009), Toward Near Real-Time MOPITT CO Processing and Dissemination, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A1120.
Recent advances in computational efficiency have allowed satellite data processing to approach near real-time. The MOPITT Science Investigator-Led Processing System (SIPS) at NCAR recently underwent processing system upgrades that allow MOPITT carbon monoxide product generation within six hours of real-time. The processing improvements, ancillary data trade-offs, and dissemination system required to produce near real-time MOPITT CO retrievals are presented. The goal of near real-time MOPITT CO retrieval and dissemination is to allow their rapid inclusion into operational chemical weather forecasting and assimilation schemes such as NCAR’s Daily MOZART CO Forecasts and the ECMWF’s GEMS project.
Moore, D. P., J. J. Remedios, and R. J. Parker (2009), Interpretation of PAN, acetone and acetylene measurements from the MIPAS-E, vol. 11, edited by D. N. A. & C. C. Tscherning, p. 9658.
Emissions of anthropogenic pollution, from biomass burning events in particular, result in the injection of a wide range of carbon compounds into the atmosphere. Carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released in significant amounts, affecting both the oxidation capacity of the troposphere and ozone production. Upper troposphere (UT) measurements of PAN, acetone and acetylene have, in the past, been generally limited to sporadic in situ sampling during specialised campaign periods. The recent rapid progress in both the detection and retrieval of many VOC species from spaceborne instrumentation has been large. It has recently been established that the observation of the global distribution of VOCs in the UT can be made by measurements provided by instruments such as the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding onboard ENVISAT (MIPAS-E) or the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) onboard SCISAT-1. In this work, we discuss the ability of MIPAS-E to provide new global measurements of acetone in the UT. We also describe both the distribution and seasonality observed in UT PAN volume mixing ratios (vmrs). From the MIPAS-E acetylene measurements, we analyse the extent and magnitude of the chemical isolation observed over the Middle East during August 2003. We show that this enhancement is due to fast westward transport from Asia via the Easterly Jet associated with the Asian monsoon anticyclone. A full error analysis is carried out for each of the three gases we analyse. Previous work has shown that characteristic infrared signatures of PAN, acetone and acetylene can be detected in MIPAS-E thermal emission spectra, with the 787-790 cm-1, 1216-1218 cm-1 and 776.0-776.15 cm-1 spectral ranges respectively being particularly sensitive to changes in each of the gases. We invert the measured MIPAS-E spectra into vmrs using an independent offline-retrieval scheme based on the optimal estimation approach which was developed at the University of Oxford (MORSE). Both zonal mean and spatial distributions will be shown reflecting both the observed mean behaviour of acetone, PAN and acetylene in August 2003. We examine the correlations between these gases and show in particular that the sources which impact the distribution of acetone also have a substantial impact on PAN. Further, we explore the relationship between other species we can retrieve from MIPAS-E spectra, namely nitric acid and ozone, with PAN. We also evaluate the consistency between the MIPAS-E measurements for PAN and acetone and compare calculations from global chemical transport models such as TOMCAT. We use the acetylene vmr data, alongside the MOPITT carbon monoxide (CO) dataset, to show that the two are highly positively correlated with two distinct domains due to the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Taking the ratio of acetylene and CO allows us to determine and age of air estimates, the time since the air mass last encountered a combustion source. A strong acetylene signal is observed over the Middle East region during August 2003; a result of fast outflow from Asia associated with the monsoon cycle. We show, in this work, that the MIPAS-E is a suitable instrument with which to study organic compounds in the upper troposphere.
Mu, M., J. T. Randerson, P. S. Kasibhatla, and G. van der Werf (2009), A new impulse-response method for estimating the distribution of global OH using satellite measurements of CO, a multi-year time series of fire emissions, and a chemical transport model, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, I217.
Estimating the global abundance and regional distribution of hydroxyl radical (OH) is challenging. Past empirical approaches have used methyl chloroform, methane, 14CO and other alternatives as atmospheric tracers, drawing upon their well-quantified reaction rates with OH. Here we propose a new method that draws upon multi-year time series of fire emissions and column carbon monoxide (CO) observations. Several recent findings provide the foundation for the development of our method. First, global fires are sporadic in nature, with high emissions events distributed widely in northern, tropical, and southern regions as a result of year-to-year variability in both climate and land use processes. Second, these fire-induced lsquoimpulses’ in CO explain most of the interannual CO anomalies in both surface and column observations. For example, using the GEOS-CHEM model and the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFEDv2), we found that fires explained 93% of CO variability at surface stations between 90°N and 30°N, 69% between 30°N and 30°S, 74% between 30°S and 90°S. Third, the sensitivity of CO levels to changes in OH is low over source regions and increases toward remote ocean regions. CO is relatively insensitive to OH over source regions because diffusive and advective atmospheric transport occurs more rapidly than reaction with OH. In contrast, in remote ocean areas, the path length from source regions is large, and so air parcels have been exposed to the cumulative effects of OH oxidation for relatively long time intervals (weeks to months). Our optimization approach draws upon these finding in two steps. First, we perform a Bayesian inversion to optimize fire emissions using MOPITT 3 observations over source regions (where the sensitivity to emissions is high, but the sensitivity to OH is low). In a second step using the optimized fire fluxes, we conducted a series of GEOS-CHEM simulations with prescribed OH levels that varied between 0.1 and 2.0 times the predicted OH distribution from a full chemistry run. We then calculated Taylor scores and RMSE estimates at remote locations for each OH level. The OH level corresponding to the highest Taylor score (or lowest RMSE) was identified as the optimal OH for each model grid cell. Our results confirm that in many areas, the chemical transport model overestimated OH levels. A limitation of our approach is that errors in atmospheric transport will influence the OH optimization.
Neil, D. O., J. Boldt, D. P. Edwards, and J. Yee (2009), Infrared Correlation Radiometer for GEO-CAPE, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A235.
We present our plans as part of NASA’s Instrument Incubator Program to characterize the performance of a 2.3 μm infrared correlation radiometer (IRCR) prototype subsystem for an instrument designed specifically to measure carbon monoxide (CO) from geostationary orbit. The Earth Science and Applications Decadal Survey mission GEO-CAPE specifies infrared correlation radiometry to measure CO in two spectral regions. CO measurements at 2.3 μm are uniformly sensitive throughout the troposphere, and 4.7 μm measurements are most sensitive to the free troposphere. In combination, the measurements yield information of this Criteria Pollutant near Earth’s surface. The success of NASA’s Shuttle-based Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) and Terra/MOPITT infrared gas correlation radiometers for CO measurements at 4.7 μm shifts the technology focus toward improving existing 2.3 μm CO measurement capability. GEO-CAPE uses this robust IRCR measurement technique at GEO, nearly 50 times farther away than the Terra/MOPITT orbit, to determine hourly changes in CO across a continental domain. We have structured the IRCR project around an analytical performance model to enable rapid evaluation of design specifics once the mission is defined. We present the architecture of the performance model, and the design of the simulator hardware and test plan which will populate the performance model.
Nichitiu, F., J. R. Drummond, J. Kar, and J. Zou (2009), An extreme CO pollution event over Indonesia measured by the MOPITT instrument, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 9(1), 1211–1233, doi:10.5194/acpd-9-1211-2009.
In the fall of 2006, the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument on the Terra satellite observed an extremely high Carbon monoxide (CO) concentration over Indonesia. This extreme event was caused by huge fire activity during the 2006 El Nino event. From our comparison with other high CO pollution events over Indonesia during similar and moderate El Nino events, we conclude that the 2006 fire activity, which caused large-scale pollution in this region, was probably amplified by an increase in frequency and/or intensity of lightning activity in a feedback mechanism. We also observed that after the fire episodes in El Nino years, the ”lightning rate” was less than during the fire episode but displayed an increasing trend across the three events observed that might have been be caused by interactions with fire smoke plumes.
Peuch, V., J. E. Attie, M. Claeyman, L. E. Amroui, P. Ricaud, N. Semane, S. Massart, A. Piacentini, D. Cariolle, J. Flaud, G. Bergametti, R. Cantie, F. Pasternak, L. Lehors, T. von Clarmann, M. Hoepfner, and J. Orphal (2009), Data assimilation experiments within the POGEQA project, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, 5.
The POGEQA (Observation of Air Quality from a Geostationary Platform) project is a French and German initiative currently funded by RTRA STAE (Midi-Pyrenees region). It links also with other international teams and initiatives sharing similar objectives, such as GEOCAPE. Using a sophisticated chemical data assimilation system, MOCAGE-PALM, POGEQA aims at defining optimal characteristics for a future instrument in geostationary orbit complementing orbiting instruments and surface observations for Air Quality monitoring and forecasting. POGEQA sits also in the context of the european initiative GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) and the project MACC, which aims at assembling operational atmospheric services ; MOCAGE-PALM is indeed one of the pre-operational systems upon which the production of regional Air Quality products is based. These experiments comprise both assimilation of currently existing sensors for tropospheric ozone and CO, such as IASI and MOPITT, and assimilation of synthetic data (OSSEs, Observing System Simulation Experiments) representative of possible geostationary instrumental concepts. These numerical experiments, though representing a very small fraction of the cost compared to the development of a real test instrument, will allow to justify quantitatively the requirements (geometry, sensitivity, errors,ldots). Differents aspects of operating such an instrument in real conditions (clouds, observations with representativeness errors, radiancesldots) can also be considered. We will show highlights from the first results obtained in the project. In particular, we will present the synthetic observations generating tool, which is based upon the KOPRA and KOPRAFIT models and 3D chemical scenes produced with chemical models CHIMERE and/or MOCAGE. We will discuss also findings from assimilation experiments and OSSEs.
Pfister, G., L. K. Emmons, C. Wiedinmyer, and D. P. Edwards (2009), Summertime Ozone over California: A Model-Measurement Analysis across Scales, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, D4.
We use the global chemistry transport model MOZART-4 together with the regional-scale model WRF-Chem V3.1 to analyze the characteristic summertime contributions of ozone and ozone pre-cursors over California. Both models employ the same chemistry scheme and emissions allowing for a high level of synergy across model scales with the global model providing the boundary conditions for the regional simulations. The focus in the analysis is on summer 2008 when the ARCTAS-CARB aircraft campaign, a joint program between NASA and the California Air Resources Board (CARB), took place. Measurements from this field campaign will be used together with in-situ observations from ground (U.S. EPA Air Quality Monitoring System) as well as satellite retrievals (e.g. Aura/OMI NO2 and HCHO, Aura/TES CO and O3, Terra/MOPITT CO) for evaluating the model simulations and support the analysis. We will examine the individual factors impacting ozone concentrations over the California region including contributions from anthropogenic and biogenic sources, wildfires and long-range transport.
Pison, I., A. Fortems-Cheiney, F. Chevallier, P. Bousquet, and S. Szopa (2009), Inverse modelling of methane and carbon monoxide emissions together with 3D-formaldehyde production from satellite measurements., vol. 11, edited by D. N. A. & C. C. Tscherning, p. 2115.
Satellites nowadays provide measurements for various atmospheric constituents with a lower accuracy than for the ground stations but a remarkable spatiotemporal coverage. These data can now be combined in sophisticated inversion systems that take the impact of the chemistry of the lower atmosphere into account. In order to improve our knowledge of the emissions of greenhouse gases and of their precursors at the global scale, we have developed a system for the inversion of the emission fluxes and 3D-production of the gases involved in the oxidation chain of methane (CH4), in particular formaldehyde (HCHO) and carbon monoxide (CO), reacting with hydroxyl radicals (OH). The interactions between these molecules are modelled based on a simplified version of the module of atmospheric chemistry INCA implemented in the atmospheric transport model LMDz, guided by the winds of the ECMWF analyses. The inversion scheme is based on Bayesian inference: a variational system, developed at LSCE from the ECMWF four-dimensional variational system (4D-Var), has been adapted for this. We present here the results of the inversion for global surface fluxes of CO and CH4 and global 3D-concentration fields of HCHO, obtained with observations from MOPITT for CO, from SCIAMACHY for CH4 and from OMI for HCHO (plus surface data for methyl-chloroform to constrain OH concentrations) on months August to December of the year 2004, a period during which all three satellites were operational. We compare these results to what can be obtained with surface data only.
Stremme, W., I. Ortega, and M. Grutter (2009), One year of carbon monoxide (CO) column measurements with ground-based solar and lunar FTIR absorption spectroscopy in the Mexico Megacity, vol. 11, edited by D. N. A. & C. C. Tscherning, p. 693.
The carbon monoxide (CO) total column is monitored by ground-based solar and lunar FTIR spectroscopy with 0.5 cm-1 resolution since October 2007 above the UNAM campus in Mexico City (19,33°N, 99.18°W). The absolute column is obtained using the retrieval code SFIT2 based on optimal estimation theory (Rodgers 1976) and the result is characterized by its averaging kernel. A discussion of the retrieval strategy and the most important error sources will be presented. The vertical CO column in the Mexico megacity shows a pattern on annual, weekly and diurnal scales. The timeseries of the CO vertical columns and the surface CO concentration show different diurnal behaviors and more information about the natural and anthropogenic influence of the air in the urban boundary layer is obtained by simultaneously analyzing of coincident measurements: a) An effective mixing layer height is reconstructed from individual CO columns and surface measurements using some simple assumptions. Its diurnal behavior seems to be rather independent of the week day and also wind conditions, but its nocturnal behavior seems to be more variable. b) The CO emission can be estimated from its column growth rate by taking the horizontal wind measurements in consideration and making some assumptions. It is shown in this work, how monitoring of CO columns in megacities can provide new information of the anthropogenic emissions on a regional scale. Also, continuous monitoring of the CO column in a megacity gives the possibility for the validation of satellite observations over the so called hot-spots as seen for example by the MOPITT instrument.
Witte, J. C., M. Schoeberl, A. Douglass, J. Gleason, N. Krotkov, J. Gille, K. Pickering, and N. Livesey (2009a), Air Quality Measurements from Satellites during the 2008 Beijing Olympics and Paralympics, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, B6.
In preparation for the Olympic and Paralympic games in August and September 2008 in Beijing, China, the Chinese government imposed strict controls on industrial emissions and motor vehicle traffic in and around the city and vicinity before and during the events to improve the air quality for the competitors and visitors. To test the efficacy of these measures, we used satellite data from NASA’s Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Terra/Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) over Beijing and surrounding areas during the Olympic and Paralympic period. The satellite instruments recorded significant reductions in nitrogen dioxide of up to 50%, up to 10% in tropospheric column ozone, 20-40% in boundary layer sulfur dioxide, and 10-20% reductions in carbon monoxide concentrations below 700 hPa.
Witte, J. C., M. R. Schoeberl, N. A. Krotkov, K. E. Pickering, D. G. Streets, J. F. Gleason, and J. C. Gille (2009b), Satellite Air Quality Monitoring Before, During and After the Beijing 2008 Olympics and Paralympics, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, K2.
In 2001, Beijing, China was awarded the hosting rights to the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Since then, the government has gradually implemented pollution emission control strategies to improve Beijing’s air quality in preparation for both games. Long-term industrial and short-term vehicle emission controls have also been enforced upwind of Beijing’s neighboring provinces to the south and west. This region is characterized by numerous heavy-polluting industries whose emissions are typically transported towards Beijing, significantly impacting the city’s air quality. We examine the efficacy of these emission control measures on tropospheric NO2, SO2, and CO pollution using satellite data from Aura’s Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Terra’s Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) from 2004 to the present. During both games, held in August and September 2008, OMI and MOPITT measured significant decreases in all three tracer gases compared to the past three years: NO2 (-43%), SO2 (-13%), and CO (-12%). This decrease in CO and SO2 over northeastern China continues through 2009, reflecting the longer-term nature of emission controls on heavily polluting industries. The global recession is also a likely contributor, as factories have shut down or slowed production due to the decrease in demand for manufactured goods. The tropospheric NO2 column over Beijing returned to typical monthly mean values when controls on vehicle emissions were lifted by the end of September 2008. However, we observe a slight NO2 decrease at the beginning of 2009 relative to 2008 suggesting a decrease in the contribution of industrial emissions of NOx to the overall NO2 column.
Worden, H. M., M. N. Deeter, D. P. Edwards, and J. C. Gille (2009), Multispectral retrieval of CO from MOPITT, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B59.
Measurements of CO using the thermal infrared channels from MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) on EOS-Terra have provided a long-term record (since 2000) of global CO distributions. Here we examine the information that is added by a combined retrieval using MOPITT TIR (thermal-infrared, 4.6 micron) and NIR (near-infrared, 2.3 micron) channels for daytime, land cases. We show increased sensitivity to CO, especially near the surface. We will also discuss the challenges in characterizing geophysical variability present in the NIR radiance data, as well as plans for future MOPITT data products.
Wu, Q. (2009), An Exploration of the Geography and Dynamics of Atmospheric CO through Time Series Analysis of MOPITT Imagery, Association of American Geographers, 1710 16th St, NW Washington, DC 20009 USA. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/746075873/13CC80DF65FB0BDD5E/4?accountid=28174 .
The primary goal of this research is to explore tropospheric carbon monoxide concentration data through Time Series Analysis (TSA). The imagery is imported and de-noised from the “Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere” instrument (MOPITT) launched on the Earth Observing System Terra satellite in 1999. Data is available for six air pressure levels and at the surface from 2000 to 2007 (still growing). This research provides a novel view of global atmospheric carbon monoxide distributions by rendering a 3-D time series analysis of the atmosphere. This research investigates the geography and dynamics of atmospheric CO by means of a series of established and newly-developed time series analysis procedures in the new Time Series Modeler (TSM) of the IDRISI GIS: Long term and annual average of carbon monoxide concentration and transport patterns describe the standard distribution of CO over time; Seasonal Trend Analysis examines trends in the seasonal cycles of CO concentration; Monotonic and linear trend analysis, Principal Components decomposition, Spatial-temporal Fourier Spectral Analysis and Multi-resolutional Wavelet Analysis examine inter-annual trends in global and regional CO concentration. In addition to analysis, the problem of data gap removal, particularly for time series images, will be tackled as well. Attempts are also made to observe the underlying causes of these trends. The analysis reveals a highly dynamic geography of CO production, transport and dissipation.
Yudin, V., A. Arellano, and D. Edwards (2009), Multi-instrumental analysis of space-borne data in the chemical weather studies: resolution kernels, linear characterization and biases, vol. 11, edited by D. N. A. & C. C. Tscherning, p. 12917.
Paper presents outlook on combining space-borne retrievals such as carbon monoxide (MOPITT, TES, AIRS, and MLS) and ozone (SBUV/2, TES, MLS, and HIRDLS) in the chemical weather studies. To optimally assimilate observations with different vertical resolutions and error characterizations the numerical aspects of resolution-dependent analysis of measured radiances or characterized retrievals (a priori and averaging kernels) are emphasized. The limits of linear characterization of CO data by resolution (averaging) kernels are examined for highly polluted scenes. The non-linear characterizations of retrieved CO indicate needs for correction of a priori information and use of the ”today” CO forecast to recover the linear characterization of retrievals. If a priori is represented by chemical forecast then the diagnosed systematic model errors (uncertainties of model physics and boundary emissions) should be properly identified and corrected. The sequential multi-step source-state estimation schemes for assimilation of the mid-troposphere CO is outlined to achieve unbiased CO analysis (or multi-year re-analysis) and diminish the forecast errors related to misspecification of surface emissions. Application of this strategy is illustrated with four years of MOPITT data assimilated in the chemistry transport model. In practice, the space-borne data can be also biased (radiance biases and errors in algorithms). In addition to conventional validation and quality control algorithms the property of reported retrieval errors and resolution kernels (symmetry, positive elements, singular values) should be used as criteria for data acceptance by assimilation schemes. Across the tropopause, the sharp changes of vertical gradients of ozone and CO demand adequate inserting smoothed constituent profiles (with degrees of freedom for signal < 2-3) in the chemical analysis. Potential errors associated with the trial analysis of layer-averaged ozone profiles as the point-wise data can introduce smoothing of vertical gradients of simulated ozone. This aspect is especially important for scenes when intrusions of air masses across the tropopause form thin vertical laminar structures. Numerical aspects of resolution-dependent assimilation for combining nadir- and limb-viewing ozone retrievals in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are discussed using ozone data (SBUV/2, TES, MLS, and HIRDLS).
Yurganov, L. N., W. McMillan, E. I. Grechko, and A. V. Dzhola (2009), Anomalies of CO Global and Regional Burdens Measured by Satellites: Update to Present Time, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, B9.
CO has several natural and human-induced sources. They are comparable in strength, but biomass burning (BB) is the only one that experiences significant interannual and seasonal variations. The importance of CO global monitoring is connected with predicted long-term increases in global and regional BB. A comparison of global data from different orbital instruments in combination with their validation vs ground-based instruments provides a fast and direct way for prompt and reliable estimation of BB variations. This report presents analyses of Level 3 global CO measurements retrieved from satellite observations by MOPITT and AIRS through April 2009. Global CO burden anomalies are recalculated into anomalies of CO BB emissions assuming stable [OH]. Regional CO burden is a good indicator for regional BB variations, as well.

2008

Anderson, J., K. Raeder, T. Hoar, N. Collins, H. Liu, and A. Arellano (2008), A Community Data Assimilation Facility for Confronting Climate GCMs with Observations, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C313.
The Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) is a community ensemble data assimilation facility developed by the Data Assimilation Research Section at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. DART can assimilate all the in situ observations routinely used for operational numerical weather prediction by centers like the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). DART can also assimilate a variety of remote sensing observations like GPS radio occultation, satellite cloud motion winds and scatterometer surface winds. DART is routinely used with both regional and global atmospheric models including NCAR’s Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) and the AM2 model from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. Confronting climate models like CAM and AM2 with observations in NWP mode can assess the relative quality of model dynamics and parameterizations and identify model errors. DART provides a variety of diagnostic tools that compare analyses and forecasts to observations. The ensemble analyses produced by DART facilitate sensitivity analysis that can give insight into the model dynamics and can help to tune physical parameterizations. DART also allows climate modelers to assimilate special observations from field programs or novel instruments that are not used in operational NWP analyses. It is straightforward to add new tracers and observations to DART models. For instance, DART/CAM was modified to support the recent ARCTAS field experiment by including carbon monoxide as a tracer and assimilating observations from the MOPITT instrument on NASA’s EOS Terra satellite.
Bian, H., M. Chin, H. Yu, T. Diehl, and R. Kawa (2008), A global model study of emissions and long-range transport of aerosols and trace gases using A-train satellite data, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, B1.
Multi-year model simulations of global aerosol and CO from 2000 to present are conducted using the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. Satellite measurements from A-train are used to evaluate the simulations of aerosol (MODIS and OMI) and CO (AIRS). Model simulations are further evaluated using other measurements from satellite (MOPITT/CO), ground stations (AERONET/aerosol, GMD/CO) and aircraft (ACE-Asia/aerosol, TRACE-P/CO). The spatial and temporal relationships between aerosols and CO are analyzed over different regions (polluted, biomass burning area, and free troposphere) in terms of their sources, lifetimes, and transport pathways. This work helps us in assessing the quantitative use of satellite aerosol and CO data for air quality studies.
Chevalier, A., F. Gheusi, J.-L. Attié, R. Delmas, R. Zbinden, G. Athier, and J.-M. Cousin (2008), Carbon monoxide observations from ground stations in France and Europe and long trends in the free troposphere, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 8(1), 3313–3356, doi:10.5194/acpd-8-3313-2008.
Continuous CO measurements performed at 3 high-altitude stations in France are analyzed for the first time. Data are provided by the new PAES (Pollution Atmospherique à l’Echelle Synoptique) network since 2002 for the Puy de Dôme and 2004 for the Pic du Midi and the Donon. CO measurements of 5 another European stations have been analysed to put the PAES stations in an European perspective. The January 2002-April 2005 CO mean levels of surface stations capture the stratification revealed by climatological CO profiles from the airborne observation system MOZAIC (Measurement of OZone and water vapour by Airbus In-service Aircraft). The deviation between the free tropospheric reference MOZAIC and surface data above 2000 m is less than 10% and this deviation can be explained in term of spatial variability, as evidenced by MOPITT CO retrievals at 700 hPa. This suggests that, averaged at a seasonal time scale (4 months), surface data at stations above 2000 m are representative of background CO concentration. This paper focuses then on trends since the 1980s-1990s. The comparison between old (1982-1983) and recent CO mixing ratio (2005) at the Pic du Midi leads to a 10% decrease, consistent with the continuous data series at Zugspitze (ZSP) from 1991 to 2004. This decrease was found to be mainly due to a negative trend of January-April mean levels. The decrease in CO sources over France and Europe appears to be responsible for that trend. The stable values of June-September mean levels suggest that the summertime oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere related to OH radicals is important enough to counterbalance any CO inputs into the troposphere. Our study shows a recent change in CO evolution since 2000 over Western Europe, with a slowed down decrease in CO concentration. Studying specifically the interactions between CO, CH4 and OH turns out to be needed, however, to find definitive explanations to those observations.
Choi, Y., A. Eldering, G. Osterman, Y. Wang, and E. Edgerton (2008), Understanding enhancements in tropospheric CO from biogenic VOC emissions using TES and MOPITT data, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, A2.
We investigate the effects of enhancements in biogenic VOC emissions on tropospheric carbon monoxide over the United States and Western North Atlantic Ocean during July 2006. This is performed using the 3D Regional chEmical trAnsport Model (REAM) along with data from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the NASA Aura satellite, the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument on the NASA Terra satellite, and surface monitor data from the SEARCH network. The model is applied to analyze the key factors affecting the summertime CO variations and its continental outflow. The anthropogenic emission inventory from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1999 NEI version 2) is reduced by 50%, which produces reasonable comparison between REAM simulated CO amounts and those observed by the SEARCH network. The large enhancements in column CO observed by MOPITT and lower tropospheric CO seen by TES over the United States and western Atlantic are also seen in the REAM simulation. The regions of enhanced CO are primarily driven by biogenic-derived CO productions.
Deeter, M. N., J. Gille, J. Drummond, D. Edwards, L. Emmons, G. Francis, S. Ho, D. Mao, D. Masters, and H. Worden (2008), MOPITT Version 4 Products for CO: Content, Format, and Validation, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B136.
Observations from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite instrument form a nearly continuous nine-year global record of tropospheric carbon monoxide. MOPITT radiance data are now being reprocessed into a new retrieval product. Following numerous analyses and developments in instrument modeling, radiative transfer modeling and retrieval algorithm design, the new Version 4 MOPITT product offers users (1) improved retrieval performance in both clean and heavily polluted atmospheres, (2) geographically- and seasonally-variable a priori, and (3) significantly reduced long-term drift. The diagnostic content of the MOPITT Level 2 product has also been enhanced for users’ convenience. For example, the retrieval averaging kernels, which quantify the retrievals’ vertical sensitivity, are now a standard diagnostic within the Level 2 product. We will highlight the major differences between the new Version 4 and previous Version 3 MOPITT products, in both content and format, and present validation results in the form of comparisons to CO in-situ profiles. Preliminary plans for the MOPITT Version 5 product will also be outlined.
Drummond, J. (2008), The Mission For Climate and Air Pollution (MCAP), vol. 37, p. 753.
Degradation of the environment is a pressing issue in the 21st century. Further observations are required to provide early warning of unforeseen issues and unforeseen side effects of policy enactments. The major atmospheric issues are divided into two groups: Those that involve short-term local or regional (national) effects are generally designated ”air quality issues” and those that involve long-term global effects are designated ”climate change issues”. From a scientific point of view these are very similar and global in nature. The commonality of these issues is also mirrored in the commonality of the measurements required for their study. Foremost among these is the study of atmospheric composition and its change in time and space. Since the issues are global, the measurements must be global as well. The Mission for Climate and Air Pollution (MCAP) is a Canadian scientific satellite initiative for air quality and climate change research. The science objective of the satellite is to determine the linkages between climate change effects and air quality through detailed measurements of composition and aerosols. The satellite payload comprises five instruments: The Fourier Transform Spectrometer (MCAP- FTS) is designed to measure greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 and others. The Correlation Radiometer (MCAP-CR) provides detailed measurements of CO using Correlation Radiometry techniques were pioneered by the MOPITT instrument. The Solar reflection Spectrometer (MCAP-SRS) is based upon the SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) instrument and will provide measurements of many gases using modification of the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared spectrum of reflected sunlight. The Multi-Angle Imager (MCAP-MAI) is based largely on the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument flown on the Terra mission and will provide multi-angle images at a number of wavelengths and polarizations for the characterization of clouds and aerosols. Finally, the Infrared Imager (MCAP-II) will provide support data for the MCAP-CR, MCAP- FTS and MCAP-SRS instruments by assisting in the detection of clouds using their infrared signature. The combined payload will be flown on a Smallsat in low earth orbit. This talk will discuss the philosophy of the payload and the integration of the measurements to provide significant advances in the issues given at the beginning of this abstract. The MCAP mission proposal is currently under review by the Canadian Space Agency as a candidate for their ”Atmospheric Processes of Climate and its Change” (APOCC) initiative.
Jones, D., M. Parrington, and K. Bowman (2008), Constraints on processes controlling tropospheric O3 and CO through assimilation of observations from the TES and MOPITT satellite instruments, vol. 37, p. 1395.
We have assimilated observations of carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument together with CO data from the Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. Atmospheric CO is a precursor of tropospheric O3. As a product of incomplete combustion and a byproduct of the oxidation of atmospheric hydrocarbons, CO also provides a useful proxy for emissions of hydrocarbon precursors of tropospheric O3. We examine here the constraints that jointly assimilating observations of O3 and CO provide on the processes controlling the distribution of tropospheric O3. We find, for example, that the changes in O3 and CO in the assimilation in the middle and upper troposphere over the southern tropical Atlantic Ocean in fall and over southeastern North America in summer are consistent with our understanding that the O3 abundances in these regions, at these times, are driven mainly by emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from lightning. A challenge in assimilating the observations of chemically active trace gases is the loss of information in the assimilation due to the photochemical sinks of the tracers. We examine the impact of the tracer lifetime and the spatio-temporal sampling of the instruments on the assimilation by comparing the impact of the assimilation in the tropics in the model, where the photochemical lifetimes of O3 and CO are short, with that in midlaitudes, where the tracers are longer lived. We find that the assimilation significantly reduces the bias in upper tropospheric O3 over southeastern North America in the model, however, over the tropical southern Atlantic, large biases remain between the assimilated O3 distribution and TES observations, reflecting the shorter photochemical lifetime of O3 and lower data density of TES data in the tropics. We demonstrate that assimilation of additional chemical tracers will be needed to accurately constrain the distribution of tropospheric O3 in the tropics.
Kar, J., D. Jones, J. Drummond, M. J. Liu, J. Zou, A. Richter, and F. Nichitiu (2008), Lower tropospheric sensitivity of MOPITT as seen in measurements over India and China, vol. 37, p. 1445.
With a number of recent satellite missions measuring the global distribution of various tropospheric trace gases, there is a strong interest in assessing the feasibility of using remote sensing measurements for air quality studies over large urban areas. The lifetime of the targeted species as well as the sensitivity of the measurements to boundary layer pollution places constraints on these efforts. Trace gases with relatively short lifetime, like NO2 (retrieved in the visible with better sensitivity to the boundary layer) are well suited for studying pollution over localized regions of high emissions such as cities, as compared to CO which has a longer lifetime and is retrieved in the thermal IR by MOPITT. However a recent re-assessment of the MOPITT averaging kernels indicates that over land areas with high thermal contrast, MOPITT does have useful sensitivity to lower tropospheric CO on regional and urban scales. We present evidence from MOPITT retrievals in the lower troposphere over India and China which supports this interpretation. We show that the major emission areas are clearly detected over regional scales even for monthly averaged MOPITT data in the lower troposphere, with significant inter annual variations. The similarity of these observations with NO2 tropospheric columns from the SCIAMACHY instrument, as well as with the recent emission inventories, lend credence to the surface source information being captured by the lower tropospheric MOPITT data. Several major cities with strong, isolated CO plumes are also detected in India and China. At least one city shows a distinct plume whenever there are cloud free conditions over the region, allowing seasonal characterization of the plume. These results indicate that thermal IR measurements may indeed be useful for air quality studies from space.
Kasibhatla, P., J. Randerson, G. van der Werf, L. Giglio, J. Collatz, R. Defries, and D. Morton (2008), Satellite Carbon Monoxide Measurements as Top-Down Constraints on Fire Trace Gas Emissions, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.
There has been considerable progress in recent years in characterizing trace gas emissions from vegetation fires on a global scale. This progress has been driven by the availability of remotely-sensed vegetation and fire products, combined with the development of global-scale, process-based terrestrial biogeochemistry models that explicitly include fire. Nevertheless, significant uncertainties remain in our understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of trace gas emissions from fires, and in the underlying climatic and human factors that drive this variability. Here, we examine the extent to which remote sensing measurements of atmospheric trace gas concentrations can provide additional constraints of emissions from fires. Specifically, we focus on using the multi-year record of carbon monoxide measurements from the MOPITT instrument on the Terra platform in an inverse modeling framework to elucidate the reduction in uncertainty in fire emissions at regional scales afforded by these measurements. We further examine the sensitivity of our estimates to various aspects of the inverse modeling set-up in an attempt to characterize the robustness of the derived uncertainty estimates, with a specific emphasis on regions with high deforestation rates in South America and Equatorial Asia.
Kopacz, M., D. J. Jacob, J. A. Fisher, M. T. Purdy, M. Buchwitz, I. Khlystova, J. P. Burrows, A. Gloudemans, J. de Laat, and W. W. McMillan (2008), Adjoint inversion using combined MOPITT, SCIAMACHY and AIRS CO columns, vol. 37, p. 1579.
To estimate carbon monoxide (CO) sources in the Northern Hemisphere, we combine CO column measurements from MOPITT (aboard Terra), SCIAMACHY (aboard ENVISAT) and AIRS (aboard Aqua) instruments in an efficient adjoint source inversion. The three instruments measuring CO from space deliver complementary information; MOPITT, as a thermal IR instrument, has been providing midand upper tropospheric CO abundances since its 1999 launch, SCIAMACHY as a solar backscatter instrument allows for sensitivity to the surface concentrations, while AIRS, also a thermal IR instrument, delivers unprecedented daily global datasets. Previous source inversion studies have mostly used individual datasets, while the current study investigates the benefit of using multiple measurements of varying vertical sensitivity, data density and data quality. Large uncertainties exist in the source estimates, and modeled concentrations show large disagreements with observations, particularly in matching the amplitude of the observed seasonal cycle. To consider the full extent of seasonal variation and to maximize the amount of available data, we use measurements over Northern Hemisphere between May 1, 2004 and May 1, 2005 from the three instruments. In the inversion, we compare CO column measurements to CO concentrations simulated by a Chemical Transport Model (CTM) GEOS-Chem. Since the efficient adjoint inversion method allows for extracting maximum information from very large data sets, we thus attempt to derive monthly source constraints at the spatial resolution of the underlying CTM, 4 degrees by 5 degrees.
Lin, M., T. Holloway, L. Emmons, C. Moberg, and P. Hess (2008), Tropospheric Ozone and Associated Precursors Over Asian Mega-cities From Satellite Data and Regional Model Predictions, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A99.
We employ the CMAQ and WRF-Chem regional atmospheric chemistry models to study temporal and spatial variations of ozone (O3) and associated precursors over Asian mega-cities. Boundary conditions of chemical species are provided by the CAM-Chem global model, which is run with the same emissions and meteorological reanalysis data as the regional models. Through coupling global and regional models, we examine how the regional processes such as frontal activities, surface-driven convection, and orthographic transport, which might not be resolved in coarse global models, can affect the export of Asian pollutants. The role of vertical transport on the export of mega-cities pollutions is diagnosed by examining the vertical profiles of carbon monoxide (CO) from the CAM-Chem global model, two regional models, and remote sensing satellite retrievals from MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere). We implement satellite data from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) to examine the chemical evolution of tropospheric O3 and associated precursors over Asian mega cities. Regional to urban scale O3 predictions from CMAQ and WRF-Chem are compared and major mechanisms such as chemical schemes, boundary layer mixing, and vertical diffusion contributing to the large difference between two regional models are discussed. The observations of shorter-lived compounds, such as NO2 and HCHO, complement the CO and O3 data by highlighting source regions. We evaluate tropospheric NO2 column densities calculations with the retrievals from GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY), and OMI. We expect results from this work to improve the ability of satellite instruments to inform ground-level air quality over regions like Asia where in situ measurements are very limited.
Liu, C., M. P. de Vries, S. Beirle, P. Hoor, T. Marbach, C. Frankenberg, U. Platt, and T. Wagner (2008), Relationship between ATSR fire counts and CO vertical column densities retrieved from SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT, vol. 7089, pp. 70890I-70890I–10. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.793283.
SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY) is the first instrument to allow retrieval of CO by measuring absorption in the near infrared from reflected and scattered sunlight instead of from thermal emission. Thus, in contrast to thermal-infrared satellites (MOPITT), SCIAMACHY is highly sensitive to the lower layers of the troposphere where the sources, such as biomass burning, are located, and where the bulk of the CO is usually found. In many regions of the world, the burning of vegetation has a repeating seasonal pattern, but the amount of CO emitted from biomass burning varies considerably from place to place. Here we present a study on the relationship between fire counts and CO vertical column densities (VCD) in different regions. These results are compared with the CO VCD from MOPITT, aerosol index, and NO2 tropospheric VCD (TVCD) from SCIAMACHY, and the coupled chemistry climate model (CCM) ECHAM5/MESSY.
Lopez, J., L. T. Iraci, A. Warnock, H. Guan, R. Esswein, A. H. Omar, and M. Luo (2008), Multi-Instrument Study of Effects of Boreal Forest Fires on the Global Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, B2.
An increase in biomass burning activity and severity has been observed since the 1950s, and further increases due to climate change are expected. Recent remote sensing and in situ observations show that highly polluted, smoke-laden air from these fires can be injected into the upper troposphere and even the stratosphere, where it can remain for weeks. In this study we are developing techniques for locating, tracking, and analyzing these injection events in order to develop a broader perspective of their frequency, magnitude, and mechanism. We have found that it is necessary to use a variety of instruments and data products to identify and analyze cases of biomass burning transport into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The differing temporal and spatial resolution of these instruments presents a considerable challenge in quantifying and comparing the events. We are using an array of data from the A-train satellites and other Earth-observing platforms. Aerosol index values are used to identify possible forest fire plumes, while backtrajectories and MODIS fire products are employed to trace the plumes to forest fires. Lidar imagery from the CALIPSO satellite and cloud top temperatures from MODIS instruments aboard Terra and Aqua are being used to estimate the plume altitude. The new CALIPSO aerosol subtype product is very valuable for identifying smoke layers. Once a biomass burning plume is positively identified, we investigate the signature of two major chemical products of biomass burning effluent - carbon monoxide and ozone. To this end, we are using CO measurements from TES on the Aura platform and MOPITT on Terra, and ozone measurements from TES. We present several case studies that illustrate the challenges in developing an automated algorithm that allows an automatic detection of high latitude fires.
Martini, M., D. J. Allen, K. E. Pickering, C. P. Loughner, E. A. Yegorova, G. Stenchikov, and E. Hyer (2008), North American Pollutant Export Due to Anthropogenic Emissions and Lightning, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B128.
Power plant NOx emission reductions and their impact on air quality as well as the impact of different meteorological conditions is evaluated by using both a global and regional model. The anthropogenic contribution to North American (NA) pollutant export is evaluated for the summers of 2002 and 2004 by University of Maryland Chemistry and Transport Model (UMD-CTM) driven by GEOS-4 CERES reanalysis data. In the first part, we compare the magnitudes of the NA pollutant export and radiative forcing due to ozone production by NA anthropogenic emissions between the 2002 and 2004 summer seasons. Near surface air was cleaner during the summer of 2004 due to relatively cool temperatures, frequent synoptic disturbances, and reduced emissions. In spite of reduced NOx emissions and abnormally low surface temperatures in summer 2004, we show that the monthly averages of net IR radiative fluxes are greater or similar in magnitude in 2004 than in 2002. We hypothesize that this is because of stronger convective transport of polluted airmasses in the upper troposphere where ozone plays an important climate role. We test a new lightning scheme which was tuned to total flashrates determined by combining National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) flashrates with climatological IC/CG ratios. We also investigate if 500 moles/flash is an appropriate average LNOx production per flash in midlatitudes. In the second part, we simulate a couple of high ozone episodes using WRF-CHEM at a 48-km horizontal resolution (4x finer than that used in UMD-CTM) and a nested 12km domain covering the Eastern half of the US with trace gas lateral boundary and initial conditions from the UMD-CTM. WRF-CHEM model output is compared with high resolution satellite- (SCIAMACHY NO2, MOPITT CO), aircraft- (INTEX-A) and ground- based measurements (AQS). Lastly, we run the simulation with different lateral boundary conditions from Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) model.
McMillan, W., L. Yurganov, K. Evans, and C. D. Barnet (2008a), Global Climatology of Tropospheric CO from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS), American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St. Boston MA 02108-3693 USA. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/19754277/13D6CD9A7AC654112B3/18?accountid=28174 .
Five years of CO retrievals from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA’s Aqua satellite reveal variations in tropospheric CO on timescales from twelve hours to five years. The shorter timescales are invaluable to monitor daily variations in CO emissions, for three-dimensional tracking of atmospheric motions, and for insights into atmospheric mixing. Previous studies have utilized AIRS CO retrievals over the course of days to weeks to track plumes from large forest fires. Substantial interannual variations demonstrate year-to-year changes in rainfall and drought patterns in different seasons. We see such interannual variations in the biomass burning emissions from the Northern Hemisphere’s boreal forests and South America, while industrial contributions are evident at smaller magnitudes on seasonal timescales. Variations on multi-year timescales exhibit the influence of large scale atmospheric perturbations including ENSO. In particular, we observe a quasi-biennial variation in CO emissions from Indonesia with varying magnitudes in peak emission occurring in 2002, 2004, and 2006. Examining satellite rainfall measurements over Indonesia, we find the enhanced CO emission correlates with occasions of less rainfall during the month of October. A simple CO inverse model starting from MOPITT CO observations also finds Indonesian CO emissions peaked in 2002, 2004, and 2006 relative to 2000-2001. Unfortunately, neither AIRS nor MOPITT was in orbit during the ENSO year of 1997-1998 when Indonesia experienced horrendous fires. Continuing this satellite record of tropospheric CO with measurements from the European IASI instrument will permit construction of a long time-series useful for further investigations of climatological variations in CO emissions and their impact on the health of the atmosphere.
McMillan, W. W., D. Kollonige, L. Yurganov, A. Krueger, R. Hoff, C. Barnet, J. Gleason, E. Celarier, N. Krotkov, X. Liu, T. P. Kurosu, G. Osterman, and O. Torres (2008b), Satellite observations of megacity air pollution, biomass burning emissions, and their long- range transport, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A107.
Recent NASA and Eumetsat satellites offer unparalleled capabilities for remote sensing of air quality throughout the troposphere. Combining both active and passive remote sensing, these instruments probe atmospheric aerosols, clouds and trace gases across the spectrum from the ultraviolet to the microwave. Onboard the Aqua satellite leading NASA’s A-Train afternoon satellite constellation, the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) see 70% of the Earth both day and night and provide detailed vertical retrievals of temperature and water vapor and weighted free tropospheric concentrations of CO, CH4, CO2, and O3. AIRS’s broad horizontal views are complemented by more detailed vertical profiles of CO and O3 afforded by the Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) onboard the Aura satellite bringing up the end of the A-Train 8 minutes behind Aqua in the same orbit. During the daytime, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) also onboard Aura provides retrievals of total column SO2, NO2, HCHO, CHO-CHO, and O3, and information on the abundance and absorption of aerosols in the free troposphere. Total column aerosol information is retrieved from observations of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Aqua. Additional information on the vertical distribution and shape of aerosols comes from the CALIOP lidar onboard the Calipso satellite in the middle of the A-Train. Providing coverage from morning orbits are NASA’s Terra satellite containing another MODIS and the Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) CO monitoring instrument and Eumetsat’s Metop-A satellite carrying the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) with similar capabilities to AIRS. We will present integrated analyses using these diverse measurements to observe temporal changes in air pollution over several densely populated areas including the Sichuan Basin, China’s north coastal plain, and Mexico City. In addition, we will present satellite observations of long-range transport of air pollution and biomass burning emissions.
Mok, J., J. Kim, J. Lee, and C. Song (2008), Correlation between Black Carbon and CO on Urban and Wildfire Area in East Asia From Satellite Remote Sensing, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.
Recent development in satellite remote sensing, with its global coverage now enables us to investigate correlation between aerosols and pollutant gases. MOPITT (Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere) onboard the Terra satellite launched in 1999 has observed CO(carbon monoxide) density, and MODIS(Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) has observed AOD(Aerosol Optical Depth). Increases of CO, a very important gas in tropospheric chemistry, in atmosphere can reduce the self- purification ability of atmosphere, thus modifies atmospheric chemical, physical, and climatological properties. Direct radiative forcing of black carbon aerosol has been regarded as a potential factor causing global warming(IPCC, 2007). MODIS-OMI algorithm is used to investigate correlation between CO and black carbon AOD. This algorithm uses OMI’s AI(Aerosol Index) to determine radiative absorption of aerosol and MODIS’s AE(Angstrom Exponent) to determine size of aerosol (Kim et al., 2007). Using this algorithm, we can classify the aerosol into 4 types - black carbon, soil dust, sulfate, and seasalt(Higurashi and Nakajima, 2002; Kim et al., 2007). Main sources of both CO and black carbon are related to incomplete combustion which results from wildfires and urban industrial emissions, but sinks are different. This research investigates how the correlation between CO and black carbon varies according to these two sources in East Asia. We use the MODIS Land cover, MODIS fire counts, sulfate by MODIS-OMI algorithm, and OMI’s nitrogen dioxide data to distinguish urban and wildfires region. To scrutinize how the correlation between CO and black carbon varies in relation to urban and wildfires, East Asia is divided into 2 areas - A (urban industrial emissions are dominant) and B (wildfires are dominant). The density of black carbon and CO in both A and B region is high, but that in A region is higher than that in B region.
Nam, J., Y. Wang, S. Song, C. Luo, J. Warner, and D. A. Chu (2008), Trans-Pacific Transport Events of Asian Dust and Pollution: Changes in Transport Pathways and a Global Model Simulation., AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B280.
In May 2003, both MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) and carbon monoxide (CO) measurements from MOPITT and AIRS show significant trans-Pacific transport to North America. We apply the global chemical transport model, GEOS-Chem, to analyze the main features of the long-range transport events. Enhancements of CO over the tropical Pacific are much broader than MODIS AOD enhancements. We find that a substantial fraction of the CO enhancements is due to boreal fire emissions in April. Biomass burning CO was recirculated into the subtropical high pressure systems and lingered for a much longer period than aerosols transported at higher latitudes. AOD enhancements are mainly due to a combination of dust, sulfate, and organic and elemental carbons. Fire contributions, although not as significant as in CO, are pronounced. Dust contribution dominates the AOD enhancements in early May. MODIS observations indicate a bias in model simulated dust AOD distributions; the altitude of dust transport appears to be too high. Sensitivities of dust transport to emission algorithms and transport processes are explored.
Pan, Y., X.-M. Hu, and Y. Zhang (2008), Sensitivity of Gaseous and Aerosol Predictions to Gas-Phase Chemical Mechanisms, American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St. Boston MA 02108-3693 USA. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/19750460/13D6CD9A7AC654112B3/19?accountid=28174 .
Gas-phase chemistry provides important oxidants and gaseous precursors for secondary aerosol formation. Differences in gas-phase chemical mechanisms may lead to differences in aerosol predictions. In this work, the role of gas-phase chemical mechanisms in aerosol predictions will be studied using the NOAA Weather Research and Forecast Model with Chemistry (WRF/Chem). Two gas-phase chemical mechanisms are being coupled with the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization, and Dissolution (MADRID) in WRF/Chem: the 2005 version of Carbon Bond Mechanism IV (CBM-IV) (CB05) and the CBM version Z (CBM-Z). While both mechanisms are a variant of CBM-IV, there are several differences between CB05 and CBM-Z mechanisms. For example, compared with CB05, CBM-Z does not include extended inorganic reaction set, explicit acetaldehyde, and lumped terpene chemistry. The WRF/Chem simulations with the same aerosol module but different gas-phase mechanisms will be conducted over the continental U.S. for July 2001. Simulated gaseous and aerosol concentrations with different gas-phase mechanisms will be compared and evaluated against available surface observations and satellite column measurements (e.g., carbon monoxide from Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), nitrogen oxides from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME), and tropospheric ozone from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the solar Backscattered Ultravoilet (SBUV) instruments). Likely causes for discrepancies between simulations and observations as well as the sensitivity of aerosol predictions to gas-phase chemical mechanisms will be examined.
Randerson, J. T., J. M. Depaz, G. R. van der Werf, L. Giglio, D. C. Morton, P. Kasibhatla, R. S. Defries, Y. Jin, M. Mu, and G. J. Collatz (2008), Global biogeochemical modeling of contemporary fire emissions, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.
Improved estimates of contemporary fire emissions are needed to better understand the effects of a changing fire regime on climate and air quality. At a global scale, uncertainties in fire emissions arise from several sources, including estimates of burned area, aboveground biomass, combustion completeness, and emission factors. The development of long-term time series requires addressing additional sources of uncertainty related to the integration of different satellite fire products, the representation of organic soils and peatlands, and the use of fire in the deforestation process. Here we describe improvements to a global fire emissions time series (Global Fire Emissions Database version 3) that reduce uncertainties associated with many of the factors described above. We then characterized long-term trends in fire emissions for different continental-scale regions during 1996-2007. Using South America as an example, we show how climate and human activity contribute to interannual variability in emissions and how the spatial pattern of emissions has changed over time. In a final step we use atmospheric observations of carbon monoxide (CO) from Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) and Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) to refine and validate our bottom-up emissions estimates for South America.
Wang, Y., C. Zhao, Q. Yang, R. Fu, and Y. Choi (2008), Impacts of East Asian summer monsoon on air quality over China, p. A101, American Geophysical Union.
Tropospheric O3 columns retrieved from OMI and MLS measurements, CO columns from MOPITT, and tropospheric O3 and CO concentrations from TES from May to August in 2006 are analyzed using the Regional chEmical and trAnsport Model (REAM) to investigate the impacts of the East Asian summer monsoon on air quality over China. Computed Monsoon Index and the observed migration of the O3 and CO indicate that the summer monsoon significantly affects the air quality over the southeast China up to the east-central China from mid-June to mid-July. The simulated enhancement of O3 over the western China during summer is dominated by the stratosphere downward flux not by O3 transport from East China. The observed summer variations of O3 and CO distribution patterns due to monsoon circulation over East China are simulated in the model. The pre-monsoon high O3 over the southern China is due to tropospheric photochemical production from pollutant emissions and transport from the stratosphere. Photochemical O3 production is substantially reduced after the monsoon onset. The CO enhancement region over the southern China disappears after the onset of the summer monsoon and re-emerges in August after the monsoon wanes.
Werf, G. R. van der, J. T. Randerson, L. Giglio, P. S. Kasibhatla, D. C. Morton, R. S. Defries, J. Collatz, J. Dempewolf, S. N. Trigg, D. Murdiyarso, and W. Peters (2008), Quantifying the role of fire in the carbon cycle around the globe, and its climate sensitivity in equatorial Asia, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B4.
Over the last two decades satellite observations have revealed the importance of fire in many ecosystems around the world, but only more recently have quantitative analyses of burned area and emissions been available. We present results from our improved Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) version 3 based on satellite derived burned area and a biogeochemical model. Model results provide an overview of the role of fires in the global carbon cycle over 1996-2008, and, for the first time, we partition total fire emissions into contributions from deforestation, agriculture, savanna, and forest fires. This allowed us to assess the fraction of total fire emissions that contributed to the build-up of atmospheric CO2 over the last decade because only deforestation fire emissions or emissions from regions where fire frequency increases are net emissions. However, global scale modeling approaches cannot easily incorporate all key regional fire processes. We will therefore focus on the Indonesia region where complicated fuel composition and uncertain burned area estimates have so far prevented reliable emissions estimates so far. By combining emissions from our fire database with atmospheric modeling and measured carbon monoxide mixing ratios from the MOPITT sensor we were able to provide constrained emissions and assess the performance of our database in this region. We found that fire emissions were roughly equal to regional fossil fuel emissions but that emissions showed large interannual variability due to the dependence of fires on drought conditions. This drought-fire link was found to be highly non-linear, revealing the vulnerability of the region to climate change if future droughts become more frequent or more intense. One of the factors contributing to the non-linearity was the climate sensitivity of forest loss. Our findings imply that land manager responses to expected shifts in tropical precipitation may critically determine the strength of climate-carbon cycle feedbacks during the 21st century.
Wijngaarden, Wav. (2008), P2.21 Examination of Canadian Climate Immediately after Sept. 11, 2001, American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St. Boston MA 02108-3693 USA. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/19759449/13D6CD9A7AC654112B3/17?accountid=28174 .
The tragic events of Sept. 11, 2001 presented a unique opportunity to examine the anthropogenic effects on climate due to severe flight restrictions over much of North America. An earlier study for the continental U.S. found the daily temperature range (DTR) for Sept. 11-14 was 1.8 C higher than for the adjacent three-day periods (D. J. Travis et al, Nature, Vol. 418, 601 Using 6 years of combined Terra CERES radiance and MODIS aerosol data, we compute the global, ocean-only, shortwave (SW) radiative effect (SWRE) as a function of aerosol species including sea-salt, mineral dust, and small-mode anthropogenic. We will first use MODIS data in cooperation with TOMS-AI, MOPITT, and GOCART model output to determine the satellite observable properties of various aerosol types, and their spatio-temporal variability. The nature of aerosol species is analyzed for several regions where, both single aerosol species are dominant (e.g. North Atlantic dust) and where a mix of aerosol types exists (e.g. Arabian Sea). These properties are used to derive the proportion of the total AOT resulting from each individual aerosol species. We then use the quasi-linear relationship between SW flux and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) to derive a clear sky, aerosol free background for each month of study. Total aerosol SWRE is calculated by subtracting the observed SW flux value from the clear sky background. SWRE from individual aerosol components is derived using applying the ratio of the AOT from an individual aerosol species to the total AOT on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The uncertainties in the aerosol classifications will be applied to the individual SWRE statistics to determine the overall uncertainty of individual aerosol SWRE and the significance of differences in SWRE from one aerosol species to another. Preliminary results indicate that globally averaged values for individual aerosol SWRE may not be representative of their true importance. Averaged over the entire ocean-only global, SWRE from anthropogenic sources exceeds dust SWRE by a factor of nearly 2. However, dust and anthropogenic SWRE are often maximized in certain regions during certain times of the year, are negligible elsewhere. As a result, we quantify SWRE on smaller regional and temporal scales to better examine the relationship between each.
Witte, J. C., M. R. Schoeberl, A. R. Douglass, J. Joiner, J. F. Gleason, N. A. Krotkov, J. Gille, P. K. Bhartia, and K. E. Pickering (2008), Air Quality Measurements From Satellites During the 2008 Beijing Olympics, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A96.
In preparation for the Olympic games in August 2008, Beijing, China imposed strict controls in industrial emissions and motor vehicle traffic around the region before and during the event to improve the air quality for the competitors. We focus on several key industrial and urban pollutants: ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) to analyze changes in pollution concentrations over Beijing, as well as other industrialized regions around the world for comparison. We use remote sensing data from NASA’s Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Terra/Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT). Preliminary analysis show a reduction in NO2 concentrations compared to previous years in August. However, changes in the longer lived trace pollutants such as tropospheric ozone, CO and SO2 are less apparent and highly variable due the influence of the regional meteorology. In particular, pollution levels in Beijing depend on whether the prevailing winds are blowing in from the sparsely populated north or from the heavily industrialized provinces to the south, i.e. the nearby Tianjin area and the more southeastern Shanghai region. Preliminary back-trajectory analysis reveal air parcels coming from the south correlate well with high pollution days over Beijing.
Yudin, V. (2008), Multi-instrumental Analysis and Assimilation of Carbon Monoxide Data, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B7.
Challenges and perspectives of data fusion studies with the space-borne CO retrievals in the troposphere and lower stratosphere are discussed in this paper. The combined chemical data assimilation and inverse modeling scheme that analyze the MOPITT CO retrievals with assumption of the bias-free data are outlined and year-to-year variations of analyzed regional CO concentrations and optimized surface CO emissions are presented. Uncertainties of CO and quantification of the NH boreal fire emissions (May-September) in chemical transport model forecasts and analysis are examined employing data from three thermal infrared CO sensors (AIRS, TES, MOPITT). Paper evaluates and discusses differences between the multi- instrumental CO products characterized by resolution kernels and a priori. For chemical data assimilation studies the perspectives to combine the multi-sensor information from the CO sensitive radiances (microwave, MLS, near-infrared, SCIAMACHY, and thermal channels, MOPITT, AIRS, TES) to optimize the partial CO sub-columns between the surface and the tropopause are considered. The possible data quality controls, model and data bias correction schemes, along with scale-dependent retrieval/assimilation algorithms are proposed to unify analysis of the multi-sensor CO measurements (radiances and/or retrievals) in the single data assimilation (CO concentrations) and inverse modeling (CO sources) system.
Yurganov, L., R. C. Wilson, and W. W. McMillan (2008), Monitoring Global Biomass Burning CO emissions: MOPITT, AIRS, and Ground-based Spectrometers., AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C301.
CO has several natural and human-induced sources. They are comparable in strength, but biomass burning (BB) is the only one that experiences significant interannual and seasonal variations. Thus, estimates of CO emission anomalies from BB using global satellite data are relatively straightforward. The importance of this monitoring is connected with long-term increases in global BB that has been speculated, but not yet proven. A comparison of global data from different orbital instruments in combination with their validation vs ground- based instruments provides a fast and direct way for prompt estimation of BB variations. This report presents analysis of CO global Level 3 measurements retrieved from satellite observations by MOPITT and AIRS through November 2008. Global CO burden anomalies are readily recalculated into anomalies of CO BB emissions assuming stable [OH]. Regional CO burden is a good indicator for BB variation in a region. Pyrogenic CO often is detected by ground-based instruments as well. A zenith-viewing Atmospheric Emission Radiance Interferometer (AERI) measuring mid-IR spectra supplies valuable information about pollution in the lower two km of atmosphere. Examples of AERI data for Oklahoma and Maryland will be presented.

2007

Ahmad, S., G. Leptoukh, J. Johnson, J. Farley, and S. Kempler (2007), Global Monitoring of Atmospheric Pollutants from the Aura Satellite, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C1421.
Atmospheric measurements of O3, CO, NO2, SO2, HCHO, Aerosol and other pollutants are routinely made by the OMI, MLS, HIRDLS and TES instruments flown on the EOS Aura satellite since its launch in July 2004. These measurements provide information on the vertical and horizontal distribution of atmospheric pollutants. High concentrations of these pollutants come principally from motor vehicle exhaust, coal and oil combustion, refineries, and biomass burning. These gases play a major role in the formation of unhealthy ground level ozone (or smog) and can trigger serious respiratory problems. The convective transport of these gases, smoke and dust also pollute the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere where the residence time of these pollutants is relatively long and atmospheric winds transport these pollutants to far distances across the oceans and continents. This presentation provides some examples of how Aura data can be used in monitoring air quality by identifying sources of air pollution and understanding the distribution of these pollutants as they get transported extensive distances from their source. In this study we have also used the Aerosol Index data from TOMS, CO data from MOPITT and AIRS, Aerosol data from MODIS, Aerosol layer height information from CALIPSO, and wind information from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. This study uses the web based data exploration and analysis tool Giovanni developed at the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Services and Information Center (GES DSIC). Giovanni provides easy access to satellite data, eliminating the need to download large data sets and thus saving the user time. Giovanni capabilities include on- line animations of 2D maps, time-series plots (including statistics), several combinations of 2D cross-section maps (latitude/longitude/height/time), scatter plots, correlation maps, and collocated subsets of the data along CALIPSO tracks.
Arellano, A. F., P. G. Hess, D. P. Edwards, J. L. Anderson, K. Raeder, L. K. Emmons, G. G. Pfister, T. Campos, and G. Diskin (2007a), Chemical Data Assimilation of MOPITT CO and MODIS AOD Retrievals in the Community Atmosphere Model, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, D3.
We explore the potential of an ensemble-based data assimilation system for multi-species chemical data assimilation. The system consists of an online global chemical transport model, the Community Atmosphere Model (CAMv3.4) with chemistry from the Model of OZone And Related chemical Tracers (MOZARTv4), and a community ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) assimilation package, the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) being developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Our initial application focuses on jointly assimilating meteorological observations from the existing global meteorological network and satellite retrievals of CO from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument and aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. We begin by first assimilating meteorological observations and MOPITT retrievals and explore the impact of the assimilation on better representing aerosol transport and combustion-related aerosol sources in CAM. We then investigate the additional impact of assimilating MODIS AOD retrievals on the modeled concentrations of sulfate, organic carbon, black carbon, dust, sea-salt aerosols and CO. Unlike previous analyses, the EnKF scheme is potentially capable of statistically updating the individual states of each aerosol types from the ensemble estimate of AOD and CO sensitivities. We present results of our analysis, both from observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) and an assimilation of real observations focusing on April 2006 test period. This coincides with the Inter- continental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-B) conducted over Hawaii and the northeastern Pacific. We verify the modeled aerosol and CO distributions using observations of CO and aerosol species from this campaign in conjunction with observations of AOD from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET).
Arellano, A. F., K. Raeder, J. Anderson, and P. Hess (2007b), Constraining tropospheric CO using ensemble-based data assimilation, American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St. Boston MA 02108-3693 USA. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/mgamodule/docview/20254485/13CB051FCDD17F93C55/1?accountid=28174 .
We present results from a chemical data assimilation system using a global chemistry transport model (GCTM), the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3) with chemistry, and NCARs Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART). The DART/CAM system has been developed as a flexible platform to provide improved estimates of atmospheric composition by integrating measurements at various scales with predictions from a three-dimensional atmospheric model. An advantage of the DART setup is the ease with which the GCTM was ported into the data assimilation system. Here, we focus on constraining the global CO distribution by assimilating meteorological observations of temperature and horizontal wind velocity as well as satellite measurements of CO from the Measurement of Pollution in The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument. We conducted an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) assimilation of MOPITT CO retrievals using an ensemble of 20 members. Initial ensembles of CO were first generated based on perturbed dynamical states and perturbed emissions. We then assimilated observations into CAM3 at 6-hour cycles over a one-month test period. Results show that the current DART/CAM data assimilation system significantly reduces the relative bias and uncertainty in the modeled CO distribution. In addition, we show comparisons of the assimilated CO with available in-situ and aircraft measurements and highlight the potential of the assimilation system as a tool for chemical forecasting, model evaluation, and for studies to better understand the impact of global pollution on regional air quality.
Christopher, S., and T. Jones (2007), Fusion of MODIS, TOMS, MOPITT and GOCART for aerosol studies, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A3.
Two years [January 2003-December 2004] of Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), and Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) data over the open ocean are used in conjunction with Goddard Chemistry Transport Model (GOCART) to characterize differing aerosol types as a function of satellite observable parameters. GOCART model output is used to select regions that are dominated (at least 80% of the total aerosol optical thickness from a single aerosol species) by anthropogenic (Black Carbon + Organic Carbon + Sulfate), dust (DU) and sea salt regions (SS). Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and fine mode fraction (FMF) retrieved from MODIS are averaged for each aerosol species region at one month intervals to examine the observational differences among each aerosol species. Anthropogenic (AN) aerosols are further separated into those produced primarily from biomass burning (BB) vs. those from combustion and industrial pollution (PO). TOMS ultraviolet absorbing aerosol index (AI) in conjunction with MOPITT Carbon Monoxide (CO) data sets on Terra are used to contrast the differences between BB and PO aerosol properties. Preliminary estimates for SS, DU, and AN MODIS FMF are 0.25ıexclÓ0.07, 0.45ıexclÓ0.05, and 0.84ıexclÓ0.04 respectively, in agreement with, or slightly lower than previous estimates. However, FMF values were observed to change substantially as a function of space and time as regions dominated by single aerosol types shrink, expand, and move around from month to month. The greatest variability in FMF was observed for SS and DU aerosols. Dust transport off of the Saharan Desert is maximized in the northern hemisphere summer respectively, increasing the area of predominately dust aerosols. MODIS aerosol effective radius for each aerosol type also showed a similar trend with SS, DU, and AN values of 1.03, 0.68, and 0.32 Ým. TOMS-AI values for DU exceeded SS and AN values up to 100% between April and October 2004 in association with the greatest dust concentrations in the north Atlantic. For BB and PO components of AN aerosols, no significant difference in MODIS FMF were observed; however, substantial differences in TOMS-AI and MOPITT values were observed between BB and PO aerosols, especially between June and November. For both TOMS-AI and MOPITT CO, BB aerosols are generally associated with higher values than are PO aerosols. The use of GOCART to constrain regions where a dominant aerosol species exists has allowed a comprehensive analysis of the satellite observed properties of various aerosol species.
Deeter, M., D. Edwards, J. Gille, G. Francis, and J. R. Drummond (2007), MOPITT Retrieval Performance in Extreme Pollution Conditions, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C3.
Satellite-based methods for determining trace gas concentrations must be applicable in widely varying contexts. We analyze the performance of the MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution In The Troposphere) retrieval algorithm for carbon monoxide (CO) in strongly polluted atmospheres. In such conditions, retrievals of CO vertical profiles based on MOPITT observations might be degraded by at least two distinct sources of retrieval error. First, the accuracy of the operational radiative transfer model for MOPITT might be lower in conditions marked by extremely high CO loading than in more typical situations. Second, the radiative effects of aerosols, which are neglected in the operational retrieval algorithm, can potentially mask the spectral signature of CO in the upwelling radiation. In both cases, systematic differences between the calibrated radiances and model-calculated radiances can lead to biases in the CO product. We exploit a variety of approaches to investigate these potential sources of retrieval error. The effect of anomalously high CO mixing ratios can be evaluated directly by retrieval simulations; results based on the regression-based operational forward model are compared with results based on a much more accurate (line- by-line grade) forward model. The effects of aerosols on retrieval quality are more easily analyzed by empirical methods. For example, using near-simultaneous observations of MOPITT and MODIS, errors in MOPITT retrieved sea surface temperature (SST) can be related to MODIS retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD). Because MOPITT retrievals of SST exploit a shorter-wavelength infrared spectral band compared to MODIS, they should be more sensitive to the presence of aerosols. Correlation of the SST error and MODIS AOD provides indirect evidence of the effect of aerosols on the MOPITT radiances.
Edwards, D. P., G. Petron, P. C. Novelli, L. K. Emmons, J. C. Gille, and J. R. Drummond (2007), The variability of southern hemisphere CO pollution as observed by MOPITT and the response to climate. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/19999184/13CCD34647F449D6AC/6?accountid=28174 .
Biomass burning is an annual occurrence in the tropical southern hemisphere (SH) and represents a major source of regional pollution. Vegetation fires emit carbon monoxide (CO), which due to its medium lifetime is an excellent tracer of tropospheric transport. CO is also one of the few tropospheric trace gases currently observed from satellite and this provides long-term global measurements. In this paper, we use the 5 year CO data record from the Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument to examine the inter-annual variability of the SH CO loading and show how this relates to climate conditions which determine the intensity of fire sources. The MOPITT observations show an annual springtime peak in the SH zonal CO loading each year with dry-season biomass burning emissions in S. America, southern Africa, the Maritime Continent, and northwestern Australia. Although fires in southern Africa and S. America typically produce the greatest amount of CO, the most significant inter-annual variation is due to varying fire activity and emissions from the Maritime Continent and northern Australia. We find that this variation in turn correlates well with the El Nino Southern Oscillation precipitation index. Between 2000 and 2005, emissipns were greatest in late 2002 and an inverse modeling of the MOPITT data using the MOZART chemical transport model estimates the southeast Asia regional fire source for the year August 2002 to September 2003 to be 52 Tg CO. Comparison of the MOPITT retrievals and NOAA surface network measurements indicate that the latter do not fully capture the inter-annual variability or the seasonal range of the CO zonal average concentration due to biases associated with atmospheric and geographic sampling.
Emmons, L., G. Pfister, P. Hess, J. Lamarque, and D. Edwards (2007a), Evaluation of Air Quality Predictions from MOZART-4, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C2.
Chemical simulations from the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4) have been used in numerous studies to analyze the impact of various sources, such as wildfires and megacities, on global air quality. MOZART-4 has also been used to provide chemical forecasts in support of aircraft experiments, most recently for the NSF-organized Megacities Impact on Regional and Global Environment (MIRAGE) and NASA’s Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-B). Direct comparisons of MOZART, interpolated to the time and location of measurements, have shown generally good agreement with the aircraft measurements of MIRAGE and INTEX-B, as well as with satellite observations, such as MOPITT CO. Where there are discrepancies, it is challenging to distinguish between errors in emission inventories and errors in the representation of chemistry or physical processes in the model. Comparisons of tracer-tracer correlations (such as for volatile organic compounds with different photochemical lifetimes or different sources) between measurements and simulations will be used to help identify the source of model errors. Artificial tracers, such as temporally and spatially ”tagged” CO, in MOZART simulations will be compared with the determinations of photochemical age derived from the observations. Several regional and global inventories (e.g., Mexico NEI, D. Streets’ Asia Inventory, POET, RETRO) will be used in MOZART and the results assessed. The sensitivity of model simulations to horizontal resolution will also be examined. The numerous investigators who have provided the unprecedented high quality observations as part of the MIRAGE, INTEX-B and other experiments are gratefully acknowledged for making their data available for model evaluations such as this.
Emmons, L. K., D. P. Edwards, P. G. Hess, J. Lamarque, G. Pfister, C. Wiedinmyer, and C. Clerbaux (2007b), Impacts of Megacities on Regional Air Quality from MOPITT Observations and MOZART Model Results, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, A2.
The emissions from large cities, such as Mexico City, Los Angeles and Tokyo, as well as densely populated regions in India, China, etc., can clearly be seen in the CO retrievals from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument on the Terra satellite and will be illustrated in this presentation. To assist in the flight planning and analysis of the MILAGRO field campaigns in Mexico during March 2006, MOPITT CO retrievals were assimilated in the global chemical transport model MOZART, using fire emissions based on satellite observations. To understand the impacts of Mexico City and other megacities on regional air quality, additional simulations of MOZART have been performed. The CO emissions from different types of sources (biomass burning, industry, etc.) are ”tagged” in the model to show their relative contribution to the regional atmospheric composition. In addition, NO emissions from a single megacity or region are tagged to identify the contribution of ozone from a given source. The contribution from Mexico City pollution to the regional and global atmosphere will be compared to other megacities.
Evans, K. D., W. McMillan, G. Sachse, G. Diskin, and C. Barnett (2007), Validation of AIRS v5.0.14.0 CO Retrievals From INTEX-A and B, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A824.
We present observations of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) transport obtained by the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA’s Aqua satellite during the Intercontinental chemical Transport EXperiment-North America (INTEX-A) during the summer of 2004 and INTEX-B (Phase B) during the Spring of 2006. In situ aircraft measurements acquired during these campaigns provide crucial validation of the satellite retrievals. A previous study using INTEX-A data found version 4.0.9.0 of the AIRS CO retrieval algorithm was only validatable in the mid- troposphere, 400-500mb, due to limitations of the retrieval algorithm. Here we present results using INTEX-A and B data to validate version 5.0.14.0 of the AIRS CO retrieval algorithm. This version uses nine trapezoidal perturbation functions (v4.0.9.0 used only four), provides output at similar pressures to the MOPITT standard retrievals, and uses a first guess profile consistent with MOPITT’s a priori first guess. These changes remove ad- hoc post-launch error terms and improve the vertical resolution and specificity of AIRS CO retrievals.
Flemming, J., A. Dethof, C. Ordonez, P. Moinat, A. Segers, O. Stein, and M. Schultz (2007), First results of the coupled forecast system of the GEMS subproject on Global Reactive Gases. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/744694124/13D5840306225CE9840/2?accountid=28174 .
We present the first results of the coupled forecast and assimilation system developed within the GEMS subproject on Global Reactive Gases (GRG). The two-way coupled system consists of ECMWFs integrated forecast system IFS and one of the Chemical Transport Models (CTM) MOZART, TM5 and MOCAGE. In the coupled system, IFS sends meteorological data at high temporal resolution to the CTMs. The CTMs provide concentration tendencies due to emissions and chemical conversion as well as initial tracer conditions to IFS. The application of external tendencies is required in IFS because its 4DVAR data assimilation needs to account for tracer source and sink terms which are not simulated in the IFS model. The operational forecast and assimilation of satellite observations of NO2, CO, SO2, O3 and CHOH with IFS are the main objectives of GRG. The coupled system has been applied in forecast mode for several months in 2003 in different configurations in terms of vertical transport and coupling synchronisation. Test assimilation runs of CO by MOPITT have been carried out for several weeks. The results have been compared with CO and O3 profiles of the MOZAIC data set. This presentation focuses on the coupled forecasts, and will cover the following topics: * Impact of external tendencies on IFS tracer simulations. * A diagnostic NOx inter-conversion operator to account for fast chemical reaction which cannot be correctly captured by external tendencies * Differences in the vertical transport among the CTMs and in comparison with IFS * Impact of the 1-hourly meteorological input in comparison to the 6-hourly input in the CTM stand alone runs. A presentation of technical aspects of the coupled system has been submitted to session CL38 / GI12 Earth System Modelling: Strategies and Software.
Gloudemans, A. M., M. C. Krol, J. de Laat, J. Meirink, G. van der Werf, H. Schrijver, and I. Aben (2007), Interannual Variability And Trends Of CO As Seen By SCIAMACHY, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, H3.
The SCIAMACHY near-infrared satellite instrument currently provides 4 years of global carbon monoxide (CO) data. The sensitivity of SCIAMACHY to surface CO allows the investigation of sources and sinks as well as long- term variability and global trends. SCIAMACHY CO shows significant interannual variability, which is mainly due to variability in biomass burning. For example, extensive burning in Alaska in July 2004 has been clearly observed with SCIAMACHY, as well as the Siberian forest fires in Spring 2003 and in Indonesia in 2006. Of particular interest is the interannual variation of CO in the Southern Hemisphere where biomass burning is the main source of CO. SCIAMACHY data clearly show enhanced CO columns during the biomass-burning season in good agreement with chemistry-transport model simulations using the new independent satellite-based GFEDv2 biomass-burning emission data base. It is shown that up to 35% of the observed CO total columns over Australian biomass-burning regions during the 2004 fire season is due to CO transported from South American biomass-burning regions. In fact, the interannual variation in excess CO in Australia during the biomass-burning season is caused by interannual variation in biomass-burning CO emissions in South America. Differences between SCIAMACHY CO and model simulations over Australia are thus not only due to uncertainties in local emissions but also in overseas emissions followed by efficient long-range transport. Synergy of SCIAMACHY CO with MOPITT which is mostly sensitive to middle and upper tropospheric CO, will allow a better quantification of the contribution of local and overseas emissions in order to improve current emission estimates.
Guan, H., R. Chatfield, R. Bergstrom, S. R. Freitas, and K. M. Longo (2007), Effects of Plume-Rise Parameterization On The Simulation Of Boreal Fire, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, H4.
Over the last 30 years, global boreal forests have experienced significantly warming and drying, leading to both increased frequency and intensity of the boreal fire regime. These intense boreal fires are very energetic and may inject a large amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and fire-associated aerosols into the upper troposphere and stratosphere through a pyro-convection process. Accurate simulation of lofting height of these fires is challenging. In this study, we evaluated a parameterization of plume lofting by dry and moist convection in the NCAR Community Atmospheric model (CAM) driven by NCEP meteorological data. This allows studies of individual fire- weather events. Our simulations are focused on the Alaska-Yukon boreal fires observed by MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in The Troposphere) and AIRS (Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder) satellites during the summer of 2004. We will compare the simulated CO with AIRS and MOPITT measured CO. We will also present the effectiveness of a plume-rise parameterization, developed originally for subtropical application, in the simulation of plume height.
Jiang, J., L. Neary, J. McConnell, H. Su, and J. Kaminski (2007a), A comparison of AURA/MLS CO measurement with 2 global chemical models, American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St. Boston MA 02108-3693 USA. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/20037604/13D67B341417399CE41/14?accountid=28174 .
In the troposphere, CO is formed by the incomplete combustion of fossil-fuels and by biomass burning. CO is also formed by the oxidation of CH4 and other hydrocarbons initiated by OH and ozone. The lifetime of CO is a few months in the tropics where there are largest OH mixing ratios. With a lifetime of this magnitude it can serve as a tracer of tropospheric motions. Recent satellite measurements have shown that large plumes of carbon monoxide can reach the upper troposphere through deep convection. Biomass burning in the tropics is a major source of CO and is currently not well represented in the global emission inventories available to the chemical modelling community. To further understand and quantify the impacts of biomass burning and deep convective transport on the chemical constituents in the upper troposphere, comparisons with satellite observations from AURA-MLS were made against two global three-dimensional global air quality models, GEOS-CHEM which is a chemical transport model and GEM-AQ which is an on- line air quality model embedded in GEM, the Canadian wether forecast model . The results show an underestimation of CO during the peak burning seasons, suggesting a deficiency in the emission inventory used in the models. The results of the inter- model and MLS and MOPITT comparisons also reveal dynamical features captured by the models.
Jiang, Z., D. B. Jones, M. Kopacz, J. Liu, and D. K. Henze (2007b), Quantifying the impact of aggregation errors and model transport biases on top-down estimates of carbon monoxide emissions using satellites observations, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C1484.
Inverse modeling has become a widely used method for obtaining top-down estimates of surface emissions of atmospheric CO. These top-down estimates, however, are adversely influenced by systematic errors in the inverse model, such as biases in the transport fields and aggregation errors associated with choice of regional scales on which the emissions are aggregated for optimization (discretization of the state vector). We have conducted an inverse analysis of atmospheric CO, using the GEOS-Chem model and observations from the MOPITT satellite instrument, to quantify the potential contribution of model transport error and aggregation errors on top-down source estimates. We focus on quantifying CO emissions for September and October 2000, during the biomass burning season in the southern hemisphere. We employ a sub-optimal Kalman filter to assimilate MOPITT data to adjust the initial distribution of CO at the beginning of the inversion period, and then apply a 4- dimensional variational data assimilation scheme to optimize the CO emissions on the 2x2.5 grid of the model. The high-resolution, a posteriori source estimates are compared with estimates obtained from a coarse resolution, analytical Bayesian inversion to quantify the impact of aggregation errors in the coarse resolution inversion on the source estimates. We also carry out the coarse resolution analytical inversion using two different versions of the GEOS-Chem model, driven with different transport fields, to isolate the impact on the source estimates of systematic differences in transport (associated mainly with the different convection schemes) in the models.
Kar, J., D. B. Jones, J. R. Drummond, J. Zou, J. Liu, and F. Nichitiu (2007), Regional Air Quality Studies Using MOPITT CO Data : A Case Study of Linfen City and the Wei River Valley in China, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C1404.
MOPITT measures atmospheric CO using thermal channel at 4.7 μm and as such is mostly sensitive to the middle and the upper troposphere. However a recent assessment of the MOPITT averaging kernels after normalizing for non-uniform grid effects indicates that over land areas with sparse vegetation during daytime, MOPITT may have sensitivity to CO in the boundary layer. Thus it may be possible to use the MOPITT data for regional air quality studies. In particular, China with its strong emission sources and varying topography makes for an interesting area to test this. We present a case study over the Wei river valley in northern China. Linfen, ranked consistently as one of the most polluted cities globally, is located on the east bank of Fen river north east of the Wei river valley. We find that a strong CO plume associated with Linfen is clearly delineated in monthly average maps of CO mixing ratio at 850 hPa for all months when data are available. High CO mixing ratios often exceeding 300 ppbv at 850 hPa are observed near Linfen and are likely resulting from the coal based industries in the city. Further, regionally enhanced CO aligned with the Wei river valley suggests topographic effects. These features seen in MOPITT CO data are correlated with corresponding signatures of Linfen city and the Wei river valley in SCIAMACHY NO2 tropospheric column data, which indicates that MOPITT low altitude retrievals are capturing the source regions. Seasonal variation of CO and NO2 around Linfen city, as seen in the satellite data will be discussed. The topographic signature along the Wei river valley can also be seen in other datasets like Aura OMI NO2 tropospheric column and MODIS aerosol optical depth.
Kim, J. H., M. J. Newchurch, S. Na, S. Kim, and R. V. Martin (2007), Singular value decomposition analyses of tropical tropospheric ozone determined from satellites, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C606.
A controversial dispute in space-based tropospheric ozone remote sensing is the puzzling discrepancy in the spatiotemporal distribution between residual-based satellite ozone observations and biomass-burning activity in the tropics during boreal winter. This study focuses on evaluation and analyses of two tropospheric ozone products determined from Earth Probe TOMS, AURA/OMI, and AURA/TES measurements. Rather than using the typical station-to-station inter-comparison with ozonesounding measurements, the evaluation was performed at the global scale using temporal and spatial patterns derived from Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) analyses. The satellite observations of ozone precursors from MOPITT CO and GOME and OMI NO2 serve as markers identifying airmasses influenced by biomass burning. The SVD analyses reveal that the SAM tropospheric ozone product is remarkably consistent (99% significance level) with the two measured ozone precursors, CO and NO2, in distribution as well as in seasonality. The analyses provide compelling evidence that there is no discrepancy between tropospheric ozone and its precursors during boreal winter.
Lee, J., J. Kim, J. Mok, Y. Kim, and T. Takemura (2007), Validation of Aerosol Type Classification from Satellite Remote Sensing, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A887.
Aerosol type classification from satellite remote sensing has been being one of important problems during recent years since the effect of aerosols to climate is different from one type to another type. Based on improved nadir- viewing satellite sensors, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and retrieval algorithms, many studies have been shown the possibility of aerosol type classification from satellite-based remote sensing [cf. Kim et al., 2007; Lee et al., 2007; Jeong and Li, 2005; Kaufman et al., 2005; Higurashi and Nakajima, 2002, etc.]. Despite of the importance of validation, it was difficult to find out the truth due to limitation of aerosol type measurements for validation of retrieved aerosol types. In this study, retrieved aerosol types from MODIS-OMI algorithm and four-channel algorithm were compared with aerosol types from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and Spectral Radiation-Transport Model for Aerosol Species (SPRINTARS) data, dust aerosol optical thickness from Multi- functional Transport Satellite-1R (MTSAT-1R), and carbon monoxide column density from Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) for the purpose of validation and inter-comparison. Although the analysis are limited and preliminary, satellite observations showed promising future in understanding the global distribution and characteristics of aerosol type by using well-known, state-of-the-art MODIS and OMI, and possibly other relevant satellites.
Li, Q., P. Kasibhatla, J. Randerson, G. V. der Werf, J. Collatz, and L. Giglio (2007), Interannual Variability in Tropospheric CO: Global-Scale Analysis using GEOS-CHEM model and MOPITT Measurements, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C1488.
Biomass burning is a significant global source of a variety of chemically and radiatively important trace gases. In this study, three-dimensional atmospheric chemical transport model (CTM) are used to simulate the distribution of CO from biomass burning emissions using GFED2 biomass burning emission inventory for the 2002-2006 period. Comparison with the MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) satellite measurements shows that the model significantly underestimated the seasonal cycle, but relatively well captured the interannual variability of the troposphere CO column. An inverse analysis is then used to estimate the biomass burning CO emission anomalies in various geographical regions based on assumption that short-term interannual variations in atmospheric column CO primarily caused by the interannual variations in biomass burning CO emissions. Such a inverse model is found useful to constrain those biomass burning emissions with large anomalies such as Equatorial Asia and Siberia. The inversion indicate over 30% increase in the emission anomalies from Equatorial Asia and 25% decrease in the fire emission anomalies from southern South America. The posterior modeled CO anomalies performed reasonably well comparing to both MOPITT column and NOAA GMD (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Monitoring Division) surface concentration anomalies.
Livesey, N. J., Q. Li, J. Jiang, M. Santee, and J. Waters (2007), Quantifying the trans-Pacific transport of Asian pollution in the upper troposphere with Aura-MLS observations, American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St. Boston MA 02108-3693 USA. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/19753892/13D6CD9A7AC654112B3/33?accountid=28174 .
Tans-Pacific transport of Asian pollution has received considerable attention because of its global air quality and climate implications. It has been difficult to investigate long-range transport of pollution in the upper troposphere because of the lack of suitable observations. The launch of Aura-EOS, with its measurements of upper tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone among other species, makes it possible for the first time to systematically examine long-range transport in the upper troposphere. In this study we present an analysis of Aura-MLS upper tropospheric observations of CO and ozone, in conjunction with a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-CHEM), with a focus on (1) quantifying the temporal variability (i.e., frequency and strength) of trans-Pacific transport of Asian pollution in the upper troposphere, (2) delineating transport events in the upper troposphere from the ones in the middle and lower troposphere by combining and contrasting MLS and MOPITT observations of CO, and (3) examining the preferred meteorological conditions and associated processes including warm conveyor belt (WCB) that are responsible for these upper troposphere trans-Pacific transport of pollution.
Luo, M., G. Osterman, N. Livesey, J. Jiang, and L. Jourdain (2007), Local CO enhancements in the upper troposphere: examining data from TES, MLS and MOPITT, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C1398.
We focus on selected CO enhancement events observed in TES data and also examine MLS and MOPITT data in the upper and lower troposphere. The events of interest include: the Siberian fires in July-Aug 2006, Indonesian fires in Sept-Oct-Nov 2006, Australian fires in mid-end Dec 2006 and the transpacific transports of pollutants in winter-spring 2007. The CO distributions near the event regions observed by the three instruments provide good opportunities for cross-instrument and cross-platform validations of the datasets. We describe the advantages, the limitations and the influence of the a priori assumptions to the retrievals for the nadir and limb instruments. The combination of the nadir and limb observations of CO provides a powerful datasets for studying pollution transport in different regions of the globe. Trajectory models are used to track the origins of the enhanced CO at different levels of the troposphere.
Martini, M., D. J. Allen, K. E. Pickering, G. L. Stenchikov, and E. J. Hyer (2007), North American Pollutant Export and Associated Ozone Radiative Forcing During the Summers of 2002 and 2004, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C1357.
The anthropogenic contribution to North American pollutant export and ozone radiative forcing is evaluated for the summers of 2002 and 2004. The evaluation is performed using the University of Maryland Chemistry and Transport Model (UMD-CTM) driven by GEOS-4 CERES reanalysis data. The goals of the simulations are to quantify North American pollutant outflow and to estimate the effects of this outflow on the forcing of climate by tropospheric ozone. Simulations are performed with and without North American anthropogenic emissions. Year-specific biomass burning emissions are used. As the first part of this evaluation, model output is compared to satellite-(MOPITT CO and SCIAMACHY NO2), aircraft-(UMD RAMMPP O3, NASA DC-8 and NOAA P-3), and ground-based measurements (AIRMAP, CASTNET, NOAA CMDL), and to output from simulations with the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) CTM. Export and import fluxes of NOx and NOy are calculated. As the second part of this evaluation, the radiative forcing due to the additional ozone production by North American anthropogenic emissions was calculated. Clear sky infrared forcing approaching 1 Watt per square meter was seen over portions of the eastern United States and the western Atlantic during some pollution episodes. Smaller values of this forcing were seen throughout Europe and northern Africa. We compare the magnitudes of the North American pollutant export and radiative forcing between the 2002 Summer season (more polluted along the US east coast) and the cleaner Summer of 2004.
McMillan, W. W., and L. Yurganov (2007), Global Climatology of Tropospheric CO from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS): Interannual Variations in Emissions from Indonesia, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C601.
Five years of CO retrievals from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA’s Aqua satellite reveal variations in tropospheric CO on timescales from twelve hours to five years. The shorter timescales are invaluable to monitor daily variations in CO emissions, for three-dimensional tracking of atmospheric motions, and for insights into atmospheric mixing. Substantial interannual variations demonstrate year-to-year changes in rainfall and drought patterns in different seasons, e.g. the Northern Hemisphere boreal forests and South America. Variations on multi-year timescales exhibit the influence of planetary scale atmospheric perturbations. In particular, we observe a quasi-biennial variation in CO emissions from Indonesia with varying magnitudes in peak emission occurring in October 2002, 2004, and 2006. Examining satellite rainfall measurements over Indonesia, we find the enhanced CO emission correlates with occurrences of low rainfall during the month of October. MOPITT CO observations also reveal Indonesian CO total columns peaked in 2002, 2004, and 2006 relative to 2000-2001. Perhaps not coincidentally, 2002, 2004, and 2006 were all El Nino years. Unfortunately, neither AIRS nor MOPITT was in orbit during the intense 1997-1998 El Nino when Indonesia experienced unprecedented burning. Continuing the satellite record of tropospheric CO with measurements from the European IASI instrument will permit construction of a long time-series useful for further investigations of climatological variations in CO emissions and their impact on the health of the atmosphere.
Mok, J., J. Kim, and J. Lee (2007), Correlation analysis between trace gases and aerosol from Satellite Remote Sensing, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B442.
Recent development in satellite remote sensing, with its global coverage now enables us to investigate correlation between aerosol and pollutant gases. MOPITT (Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere) onboard Terra satellite launched in December of 1999 has observed carbon monoxide density, and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) has observed AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth). In addition, SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) and OMI have observed sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide density. Increase of pollutant gases in tropospheric atmosphere modifies chemical, physical, and climatological properties. Aerosol classification algorithm by using MODIS AOD and OMI AI data is used to investigate correlation between gases and aerosols. This study investigates correlation between aerosol and pollutant gases which are regarded as a precursor of aerosol, and their dependence on season, and region. To investigate regional dependence, we divided globes into 7 areas - North America, South Africa, Europe, North Africa, South Africa, Asia, and Australia. Correlation between black carbon AOD retrieved by MODIS-OMI aerosol classification algorithm and CO becomes better than that between fine mode AOD and CO in most regions. By comparing these results with MODIS fire counts, enhanced correlations are found for CO with black carbon aerosol in the region of biomass burning and wild fires. But the correlation between SO2 and sulfate AOD is not good because of longer time in converting SO2 into sulfate.
Pfister, G. G., P. G. Hess, L. K. Emmons, and P. J. Rasch (2007a), TOA Radiative Forcing of the Alaska Wildfires in Summer 2004. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/19997689/13C2D8EFBD16FFBD05D/7?accountid=28174 .
In the summer of 2004 Alaska experienced a record fire season due to an extreme drought situation. Wildfires can emit large amounts of trace gases and aerosols into the atmosphere which directly or indirectly impact the Earth radiation balance. We estimated the top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing from the 2004 fires by integrating simulations with the NCAR community atmosphere model with chemistry (CAM-chem) and satellite observations of the TOA longwave and shortwave radiation fluxes. Fire emissions for carbon monoxide (CO) have been derived from an inverse modeling study using satellite observations of CO from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument and the emissions of other trace gases have been scaled accordingly using emission ratios found in the literature.
Pfister, G. G., L. K. Emmons, D. P. Edwards, P. G. Hess, and A. F. Arellano (2007b), Transpacific Transport of Pollution and its Impact on Atmospheric Composition over North America, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.
We have analyzed the transport of pollution across the Pacific during springtime 2006 and examined how the long-range transport impacts atmospheric composition over North America. Our analysis combines simulations performed with both the chemistry transport model MOZART and the regional air quality model WRF-CHEM with a suite of observations. The observational data set includes aircraft measurements of trace gases and aerosols performed during the INTEX-B campaign (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment), ground-based trace gas and aerosol measurements, and satellite observations of CO from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument and of aerosol loading from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Model tracers are used to examine the contributions of different regions to pollution levels over the Pacific and to estimate the ozone production from NOx sources in Asia to ozone loadings over the Pacific and North America. The MOPITT and MODIS multi-year data series reaching back to 2000 are used to put 2006 into relation to the transpacific transport occurring in other years. The authors acknowledge the INTEX-B team for making their measurements available.
Reidmiller, D. R., D. Jaffe, P. C. Novelli, L. Emmons, and L. Zhang (2007), Inter-annual Variations in CO as Seen at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory by Satellites, GEOS- Chem and Other Regional Surface Sites, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C604.
Inter-annual variations in tropospheric trace gases are caused by variations in emissions (especially fires), variations in transport, OH, or other causes. Understanding this variability is essential for air quality regulation and attribution. We have made continuous measurements of O3, CO, sub-micron σsp (aerosol scattering coefficient), NOy, total airborne Hg and various meteorological parameters at the Mt Bachelor Observatory (MBO: 43.98°N, 121.69°W; 2.7 km ASL) since Feb 2004. These measurements, along with MOPITT satellite retrievals, GEOS-Chem chemical transport model output and 4 western U.S. NOAA ESRL/GMD surface sites all show the highest springtime (April) CO maximum from 2004-07 occurred in 2005. The April mean CO maximum reached 188 ppbv in 2005 at MBO. In 2006 and 2007, the April maximum was lower at ∼145 ppbv (a 24% decline from 2005). This decrease, albeit on the order of 5-10 ppbv, was also observed in: MOPITT CO retrievals at 700 mb (a 5% decline from 2005 to 2006+07), GEOS-Chem output for the MBO region (a 7% decline), as well as at four ESRL/GMD sites in the western U.S (a 7% decline). We attempt to answer the following questions: 1) Why was the April CO maximum significantly higher in 2005 compared to 2006 and 2007?, and 2) Why is the decline from 2005 to 2006+07 so much greater at MBO than in the other platforms and model output? We analyze remotely sensed fire counts throughout the Northern Hemisphere to examine the role of biomass burning. We compile a climatology of backtrajectories from MBO to investigate the variability of meteorological transport conditions. We have also observed a steady decline in the late summer CO minimum at MBO from 2004-07 when all data are considered. We present several methodologies for segregating MBO data (e.g., NOx cycles, water vapor and O3 patterns, etc.) in an effort to understand the upslope / downslope flow at our mountain site on both diurnal and seasonal timescales. This has direct implications for the influence the regional BL (i.e., local wildfires) has on measurements at MBO and may provide insight into this decrease in the late summer CO minimum.
Senten, C., M. De Maziere, C. Hermans, B. Dils, M. Kruglanski, A. Merlaud, E. Neefs, F. Scolas, A. C. Vandaele, C. Vigouroux, K. Janssens, B. Barret, M. Carleer, and P. F. Coheur (2007), Ground-based FTIR measurements at Ile de La Reunion: Observations, error analysis and comparisons with satellite data. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/21079846/13CCD34647F449D6AC/7?accountid=28174 .
Ground-based Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a powerful remote sensing technique to obtain information on the total column abundances and on the vertical distribution of various constituents in the atmosphere. Many of these species are essential for the investigation of important atmospheric phenomena, such as the overall greenhouse effect or the stratospheric ozone decrease and recovery. In the frame of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), such observations have been made since many years at several measurement stations for the worldwide long-term monitoring of the atmospheric composition. In this work, we present the results from two short-term FTIR measurement campaigns in 2002 and 2004 at the Ile de La Reunion (21 degree S, 55 degree E), a complementary NDACC site in the subtropics, in the Indian Ocean. All spectra were recorded in solar absorption mode. The results discussed here concern the direct greenhouse gases methane (CH sub(4)), nitrous oxide (N sub(2)O) and ozone (O sub(3)), and the indirect greenhouse gases carbon monoxide (CO) and ethane (C sub(2)H sub(6)), as well as hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and stratospheric hydrogen chloride (HC1), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and nitric acid (HNO sub(3)). For the latter species (HCN, HCl, HF and HNO sub(3)), we show time series of total column amounts from the surface up to 60 km. For CO, CH sub(4), N sub(2)O and O sub(3), it is possible to derive additionally independent information on a few partial columns; these time series are discussed as well. A complete error budget of the retrieval products is given. Temporary mutually correlated enhancements of CO, C sub(2)H sub(6) and HCN have been observed. They have been traced back to biomass burning events in southern Africa and Madagascar using the FLEXPART model. Comparisons of our retrievals with correlative data from satellite experiments, such as ACE and MOPITT, and with available ozone soundings, show generally good agreements between the different data sets.
Wilson, R. C., L. Yurganov, W. W. McMillan, P. Novelli, M. Fischer, and S. Biraud (2007), Ground-based Remote Sensing of Carbon Trace Gases: Validation of AERI CO Retrievals and Validation of Satellite CO Observations, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, D1602.
Global to regional satellite measurements of CO and other trace gases in the boundary layer can provide essential constraints for air quality forecasting and climate change science. We present validation of a carbon monoxide (CO) retrieval algorithm developed for zenith-viewing Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometers (AERI) using co-located in situ measurements at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) site near Lamont, Oklahoma. The AERI measures downwelling radiation emitted from the atmosphere every 7-8 minutes, providing near real-time temperature and moisture profiling of the boundary layer since January, 1997. AERI CO averaging kernels indicate approximately 70% of the retrieved information comes from the boundary layer, with rapidly decreasing sensitivity to the free troposphere. We report a comparison of AERI CO retrievals with a combination of ground-based continuous measurements of CO mixing ratios at 60 m above the surface and weekly aircraft flask profiles (from 300 to 5000 m above ground level) at the SGP site between March, 2006 and April, 2007. Results show that AERI retrievals are well correlated with measured CO. A subset of the ten-year record of AERI CO retrievals are then compared with retrievals of lower tropospheric CO obtained from satellite-borne instruments including the Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument onboard Terra, the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) onboard Aqua, and the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) onboard Aura. Results from this comparison show that the satellite measurements successfully retrieve the column CO over the SGP.
Yurganov, L., W. McMillan, A. Dzhola, E. Grechko, N. Jones, G. van der Werf, P. Wennberg, and K. Evans (2007), Interannual variations of carbon monoxide global burden measured by MOPITT and AIRS; assessments of total carbon emitted by wild fires., AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, D1513.
Biomass burning is one of the most unstable sources of carbon for the atmosphere. Variations of carbon monoxide global burden (total tropospheric mass) can be used as a proxy for total carbon emitted by wild fires. This report presents new results of CO global total column measurements using the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS), a space-borne spectrometer aboard the Aqua satellite in combination with data from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) sensor aboard the Terra satellite. Both data sets were validated using ground-based spectrometric total column measurements in Russia and Australia and compared to the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) retrievals. Anomalies of global CO emissions were estimated using a simple one-box model and compared to the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED), version 2. A positive trend of CO global emissions for the second half of the year between 2000 and 2006 was found while no visible trend for the first half of the year was noticed. CO annual emission in 2006 was 184 Tg higher that that in 2000- 2001. Total carbon contribution from biomass burning during the most intense fires, occurred in 1997-1998 (GFED) and 2006 was estimated as high as (0.6 - 1 ) Pg C per year larger than in 2000. This is comparable with the modern estimate of the global continental carbon net sink -0.9 Pg C per year. So, wild fires are able to convert global continental areas from a sink to a weak source of CO2.
Zeng, T., Y. Wang, D. Tian, A. Russell, and W. Barnard (2007), Impact of prescribed fire emission on air quality over the southeastern US, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A38.
Prescribed burning is a large aerosol source in the southeastern United States. Its air quality impact is investigated using EPA model-3 system. Fire emissions are calculated based on a recent developed emission inventory by the Visibility Improvement - State and Tribal Association of the Southeast (VISTAS) program. Two scenarios with and without prescribed fire emissions are investigated for the 10 southeastern states in the base year of 2002 of VISTAS. Large impact has been found with the inclusion of prescribed fire emissions. It significantly improved model performance in spring by reducing the mean biases of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). CO enhancements in the free troposphere in spring for some fire events can be confirmed by the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite CO observations. Model results show that prescribed burning leads to ∼30% enhancements of OC and EC in spring, respectively. We found a moderate correlation between local burning areas and the enhancement of EC and OC. Long-range transport leads to some episodes of PM2.5 increase at some sites in the low fire emission areas. In summer, model underestimated carbonaceous aerosols even after the consideration of prescribed fire emission. Scaled fire emitted EC to MODIS observed seasonality of fire counts in summer cannot account for the underestimation. Under-predicted EC in summer indicates missing or underestimated EC sources in the southeastern US.

2006

Anderson, J. L., A. F. Arellano, K. Raeder, and P. G. Hess (2006), Ensemble-based Chemical Data Assimilation in a Global Atmospheric Model, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A860.
Ensemble-based data assimilation is appealing to studies in global atmospheric constituent transport and chemistry. It offers the flexibility and efficiency to assimilate measurements of various scales and of various chemical species with complex observation operators. It has also the potential to provide conditional distributions of poorly-observed model parameters important to modeling transport and chemistry. We present here an ensemble-based chemical data assimilation system using a global atmospheric model, the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3) with simplified chemistry and NCAR’s Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART). DART is a generic and modular software developed to facilitate assimilation studies using the ensemble Kalman filter technique. We demonstrate its utility by presenting two applications. First, we apply the system in constraining the global CO distribution. We assimilate observations of temperature and horizontal wind velocity as well as satellite CO retrievals from Measurement of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT). Assimilation results during the period of INTEX-B campaign show that the current system significantly reduces the relative bias and uncertainty in the modeled CO distribution. Second, we apply the system to examine the information content of potential CO column measurements using observing system simulation experiments. We show, in particular, an incremental gain in boundary layer information with the addition of ”new” CO column measurements to MOPITT CO assimilation.
Arellano, A. F., K. Raeder, J. L. Anderson, and P. G. Hess (2006), Global Forecast CO Residuals From Ensemble Data Assimilation Experiments, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, G3.
An ensemble approach to data assimilation provides improved information on estimates of forecast error covariances. We explore its potential by conducting data assimilation experiments using the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3) with a simplified CO chemistry and NCAR’s Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART). This is an ensemble-based chemical data assimilation system developed to provide a flexible platform for related studies in chemical weather forecasts, assessing the impact of global air pollution to regional air quality, and estimating anthropogenic emissions. Here, we carry out both observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) and assimilation of real observations of temperature (T), horizontal wind velocity (U,V) and MOPITT CO retrievals, to examine the contribution of key uncertainties in forecasting the global CO distribution. In particular, we examine short-term forecast differences from observation (forecast residuals) of CO resulting from uncertainties in ”transport” (expressed as error in T,U,V), CO initial condition and/or CO emissions. To expound on each of these error components, we carry out six sets of OSSEs using either perturbed dynamical states and/or perturbed emissions. Analyses of forecast residuals based on an ensemble of 20 members are presented, which demonstrate some of the error properties of the modeling system. We focus on the spatial structure of the error statistics and identify salient features important in modeling forecast error covariances. We then compare these results with the forecast residuals from an assimilation of real observations during the INTEX-B campaign period.
Bian, H., M. Chin, and R. Kawa (2006), Effect of biomass burning emissions on global and Asia CO simulations, American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave., N.W. Washington DC 20009 USA, [URL:http://www.agu.org]. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/21002372/13CB374674144050D86/3?accountid=28174 .
The impacts of biomass burning emissions on simulated CO distributions are investigated on global and Asia continental scales. Three a priori and two a posteriori biomass burning emissions derived from referred methodologies are used in model sensitivity simulations. These experiments simulate global CO for the year 2000-2001 with a unified chemistry transport model, set up with our current best knowledge in other physical and chemical processes and driven by the assimilated meteorological fields from NASAs Goddard Earth Observation System version 4. We compare and contrast the sensitivity experiments with the measurements from satellite MOPITT instrument, surface and airborne CMDL network, and field campaigns (e.g., ACE-Asia and TRACE-P). The evaluation of these biomass burning emissions indicates that the a posteriori emissions improve CO simulation generally; however, further investigations are needed for some regional anomalies, such as extremely high CO over Central America. The simulated CO fields also demonstrate that the systematic bias induced by different methodologies and data origins is more significant for biomass burning emission than its interannual variation between 2000 and 2001 on global scale.
Choi, Y., Y. Wang, T. Zeng, D. Cunnold, E. Yang, R. V. Martin, and K. Chance (2006), Modeling analysis of springtime transitions of O3, NOX, and CO over North America on the basis of in situ and satellite measurements, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A1.
Trace gas simulations using the 3-D Regional chEmical trAnsport Model (REAM) for February to May 2000 over North America are applied to analyze surface, aircraft, and satellite measurements to understand the springtime transitions of key trace gas concentrations and export. The global GEOS-CHEM model is used to provide chemical initial and boundary conditions and the global model results are compared with REAM. Surface observations from AIRNOW (EPA) and SEARCH networks, aircraft observations from the TOPSE and MOZAIC experiments, ozonesondes, and remote sensing measurements from GOME, MOPITT, TOMS and SAGE are analyzed. Generally, the model results are in good agreement with the observations in the troposphere. Above 350 hPa, the mdoel has a low bias in simulated ozone concentrations due to the specified upper boundary concentrations. We highlight a few results here. We find that the simulated boundary layer structure is a key process that differentiates REAM simulations from GEOS-CHEM. As a result, the activation of photochemistry in the boundary layer and the resulting increase of ozone concentrations in spring are much faster in GEOS-CHEM than REAM or in surface observations. It also contributes to substantial difference of monthly mean NO2 columns between the two models. However, when averaged over the 4 months period, the model-to-model difference as well as month-to-month variability is averaged out. The agreement among GOME and two model simulated NO2 columns are well within the uncertainties of GOME measurements, rendering the a posteriori NOX emissions essentially the same as the a priori. Lastly, the lightning NOX production in REAM is much larger than GEOS-CHEM, resulting in better simulations of NO2 columns over the western North Atlantic than GEOS-CHEM. Consequently, REAM shows a significantly larger increasing trend of ozone column over the southern part of western North Atlantic than GEOS-CHEM.
Deeter, M., J. Gille, D. Edwards, and L. Emmons (2006), Analysis of Observed Biases in MOPITT Radiances, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B886.
Because of significant biases observed in some of the Measurements of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) thermal-channel radiances, only a subset of the available radiances are used to retrieve the CO profile in the original MOPITT product (Version 3). In the next operational product (Version 4), some form of radiance bias correction will be implemented. This feature will allow use of more available thermal-channel radiances and may thereby increase the retrieval information content. Properly correcting for the biases in the MOPITT radiances requires an analysis in which “true” biases are distinguished from “apparent” biases associated with the radiance validation method. For example, the validation method necessarily assumes that in-situ carbon monoxide profiles measured from aircraft exactly describe the CO distribution over a substantial three-dimensional region surrounding the validation site. Departures of the actual CO distribution from this ideal lead to apparent radiance biases. Apparent biases may also be associated with the limited vertical extent of the in-situ profiles (which requires the application of an ad-hoc extrapolation method). Methods for minimizing the influence of apparent biases will be described, leading to estimated values for the true radiance biases.
Drummond, J. (2006), The Future of Carbon Monoxide Measurements from Space, vol. 36, p. 1633.
It is now over 20 years since the Measurements of Air Pollution from Space MAPS instrument made the first measurements of tropospheric carbon monoxide from the shuttle Since that time a number of instruments have flown including the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere MOPITT Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer TES and SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY SCIAMCHY to name only three of many Each of these instruments has a unique observing method and unique mission characteristics It is accepted that measurements of carbon monoxide provide a useful proxy of the pollution of the troposphere and contribute significantly to studies of various phenomena in the atmosphere and atmosphere-surface interactions These measurements should therefore be continued – but in what form Technology has progresses significantly since the current generation of instruments was designed and our ability to interpret the data from such instrumentation has likewise expanded It is therefore fruitful to consider what is the best set of measurements that can be made which parameters should be emphasized and which compromised on the way to the next generation of sensors The Measurements of Air Pollution Levels in the Environment MAPLE instrument is a study financed by the Canadian Space Agency to design a next-generation instrument and since instrument spacecraft and mission are now intimately linked a consideration of the whole mission is appropriate This talk will outline some potential developments in the hardware
Drummond, J., J. Kar, J. Liu, J. Zou, F. Nichitiu, D. Edwards, and J. Gille (2006), Measurements of carbon monoxide from space using the MOPITT instrument, vol. 36, p. 1634.
The Measurements Of Pollution in The Troposphere MOPITT instrument was launched on December 19 th 1999 and has now completed over six years of measurements of carbon monoxide from space providing the most extensive and complete data set of a tropospheric minor constituent over the planet in both space and time During the mission – which is still continuing – events have been observed at many time and space scales ranging from planetary-scale changes from extensive forest fires persisting for many months to sharp concentration changes over 100km persisting only for a few days This wealth of phenomena has given us a new view of the troposphere and its chemical and dynamical behavior With such an extensive dataset it is now possible to try to assess the average behaviour of carbon monoxide over the planet The intriguing result is that the average proves very elusive and the typical year has yet to be determined Random surface events are frequent enough that carbon monoxide is frequently perturbed from its background state This has implications for modeling and forecasting of future concentrations This paper will highlight some of the events that perturb the carbon monoxide concentration drawing from examples over the MOPITT mission time frame and discuss how these feed into the global picture We will also discuss what implications this has for future missions to continue the dataset The MOPITT instrument has been supported by the Canadian Space Agency MOPITT data processing is supported by NASA MOPITT data analysis has
Emmons, L. K., P. G. Hess, J. Lamarque, D. Fillmore, C. Granier, D. Kinnison, T. Laepple, J. Orlando, G. Petron, G. Pfister, X. Tie, and S. Walters (2006), Sensitivity of Chemical Budgets to Meteorology in MOZART-4, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C94.
Using the recently finalized Version 4 of the Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers (MOZART-4), the impact of analyzed meteorological fields on global chemical simulations has been studied. Simulations with MOZART-4 driven with NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis and ERA-40 (ECMWF Reanalysis) meteorological fields show significant differences in the chemical budgets of a number of compounds. The largest differences in the two sets of simulations are due to the differences in the diagnosis of clouds, and therefore convection and precipitation. These differences cause differences in lightning production rates and distributions, as well as the washout of aerosols and trace gases, significantly impacting the distribution of OH and many other chemical species. The resulting budgets of ozone, carbon monoxide and other compounds will be presented. The model results are evaluated with surface-, aircraft- and space-based observations, such as the NOAA/GMD surface data, NASA TRACE-P and INTEX-A aircraft campaigns, and the MOPITT satellite data. These simulations provide one estimate of the uncertainties in the prediction of chemical composition using chemical transport models.
Goede, A. P. H., and E. Consortium (2006), EVERGREEN: Global satellite observations of greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution, vol. 36, p. 3340.
The EVERGREEN project of the European Commission 5 th Framework Programme has demonstrated new methods able to exploit satellite data in global climate and local air pollution research and application begin itemize item Global maps of CH4 CO and CO2 simultaneously measured were produced for the first time from SCIAMACHY space observations containing new information on sources and sinks item Major new methane sources in the tropics have been discovered which has lead to new research in methane emissions from plants item Global carbon monoxide data from SCIAMACHY and MOPITT have shown generally good agreement with models except for higher concentrations measured in Southern America These data have resulted in improved agreement with surface FTIR measurements tens of percent item Global carbon dioxide data from SCIAMACHY are in qualitative agreement with existing models and agree with the limited ground based FTIR stations to within a few percent item Variability in stratospheric methane measured by MIPAS was found to have a relatively small impact on the radiation budget 0 01 W m2 not exceeding the error bars Enhanced methane found by SCIAMACHY has a more significant effect on instantaneous radiative forcing 0 1W m2 depending on profile assumptions made item MOPITT data have been used to establish source sink strengths by inverse modelling item SCIAMACHY data have allowed inverse modelling of methane sources and sinks showing enhanced tropical emissions compared with a priory estimates end itemize Important new global atmospheric data sets
Hess, P., L. Emmons, A. Arellano, G. Pfister, D. Edwards, and G. Sachse (2006), Chemical Data Assimilation and Forecasts for the INTEX-B Field Campaign, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, G1.
The Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) took place from March 1 to May 15, 2006 and was designed to understand the transport and transformation of gases and aerosols on intercontinental scales and assess their impact on air quality and climate. Extensive aircraft measurements were taken over the Pacific Ocean to quantify the transpacific transport and evolution of Asian pollution to North America. Chemical forecasts of the distribution of pollutants over the Pacific Ocean were used extensively for flight planning purposes and were critical to the success of the experiment Here I present our experience using the Model of Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4) for chemical forecasts during this campaign. A continuous MOZART-4 simulation using meteorology from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) was used to assimilate near-real-time MOPITT CO retrievals. A second high resolution (0.5 x 0.625 degree) tracer simulation was initialized with the assimilated chemical fields to produce forecasts of CO for up to three days. The CO emission inventory during these runs was updated using the MODIS rapid response product fire counts. Here I use MOPITT and aircraft measurements to assess the successes and limitations of this approach. In particular I address the importance of using assimilated satellite derived CO observations and quantify the degradation of the forecast as the forecast period increases.
Jaffe, D. A., X. Liu, K. V. Chance, L. K. Emmons, and P. C. Novelli (2006), Influence of Large Scale Fires on NH, O3 and CO as Seen by Satellite and In-Situ Observations, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, F8.
1997-98 and 2002-03 were substantially above average in the area of NH biomass burning. Using a combination of GOME tropospheric column O3 (TCO) data (1996-2003), MOPITT total column CO data (2000- 2005) and in-situ observations, we analyze the influence on hemispheric CO and O3 from these large scale burning events. To extend the hemispheric CO record, we compare MOPITT and surface observations from 17 NH locations. For each dataset we calculate the deseasonalized monthly CO enhancements by normalizing to the long-term monthly mean. The normalized CO anomalies for the column and surface show a good correlation with an R2 of 0.60. This indicates that we can use the surface anomaly as a measure of the tropospheric anomaly, and therefore extend our hemispheric CO record back to at least 1992. From this analysis we find that Northern Hemispheric CO is significantly enhanced from the large scale burning between November 1997 and May 1999, and again between July 2002 and November 2003. The peak enhancements in NH CO, compared to the long-term monthly means, occur in October 1998 (27%) and June 2003 (13%). GOME TCO data also show a hemispheric tropospheric O3 enhancement between May 1998 and December 1999, with a peak between June and September 1998 (6%). We also compare the satellite data to in-situ observations in the Pacific Northwest and find broad similarities between the two. The enhancements in the Pacific were greater then the hemispheric average. These results show that large scale fires influence hemispheric levels of both CO and O3.
Jones, D. B., K. W. Bowman, J. A. Logan, M. Parrington, R. V. Martin, H. Worden, J. R. Worden, and G. Osterman (2006), Improved constraints on processes controlling tropospheric O3 and NOx through assimilation of observations from the TES, SCIAMACHY, and MOPITT satellite instruments, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A3.
The wealth of recent satellite observations of trace gases in the troposphere offer a unique opportunity to better understand the factors regulating tropospheric O3 and its precursors. In this context, chemical data assimilation (CDA) has emerged as a powerful tool with which to integrate these new data with atmospheric chemistry and transport models. We have developed a CDA system using a Kalman filter approach in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM) to assimilate observations of CO and O3 from TES, NO2 from SCIAMACHY, and CO from MOPITT. We assess the extent to which assimilation of these observations in a CTM can provide greater constraints on the unobserved chemical constituents, thereby enabling a better simulation of key chemical processes controlling tropospheric O3. As a useful case study we focus on the assimilation of data for November 2004, when there was widespread biomass burning in the southern hemisphere. In particular, there was extensive biomass burning in parts of Australia, Indonesia, and southern Africa that was not captured in the climatological emission inventory in the GEOS-Chem model. The assimilation improves significantly the model simulation of the impact of the biomass burning on the composition of the southern tropics, as observed by the three instruments, and produces large changes in the chemistry in model. Over the biomass burning regions of Indonesian and Australian, for example, the assimilation significantly alters the NO2/NO ratio in the model, with consequent changes in the abundances of HNO3 and PAN. We expect that assimilation of additional chemical constituents will provide even greater constraints on the underlying chemical processes controlling tropospheric abundances of O3.
Kampe, T. U., and I. N. Sokolik (2006), Analysis of spatial and temporal variability of carbon monoxide and carbonaceous aerosols using space-borne measurements: Implications for data assimilation with chemical transport models, vol. 10, American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St. Boston MA 02108-3693 USA, [URL:http://ams.confex.com/ams/htsearch.cgi]. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/19980927/13D67B341417399CE41/20?accountid=28174 .
Biomass and fossil fuel burning are efficient sources emitting carbonaceous aerosols as well as CO into the atmosphere. Both atmospheric species are central to many problems in atmospheric chemistry, air pollution, and climate change. Satellite remote sensing offers the best approach for obtaining global measurements of tropospheric trace gases and aerosols. Currently, several different satellite sensors are used to retrieve CO and aerosol optical depth, AOD. Given a growing interest in the development of the modeling tools capable of predicting the strength of emission sources as well as transport of gases and particulates in the atmosphere, satellite data can potentially provide useful information for testing and validating the chemical transport models. However because of existing differences in the spatial and temporal sampling between the satellite sensors and models, retrieved CO and AOD products are averages over different spatial fields, which are, in turn, different from the grid size of the chemical transport models. Thus, it is important to understand how spatial and temporal averaging can affect the correlation between CO and aerosol fields. To address this issue, we analyzed the collocated fields of CO retrieved from MOPITT and aerosol optical depth of fine size-mode retrieved from MODIS for several cases of biomass burning events. The CO/aerosol correlations found in satellite data were compared to in situ measurements and model simulations. The results of this study will be presented and implications for data assimilation by chemical transport model will be addressed.
Kim, J., H. C. Lee, D. Edwards, and et al (2006), Effect of Forest Fires on the Air Quality in Seoul from MOPITT Measurements, vol. 628.
Kopacz, M., D. J. Jacob, D. K. Henze, C. L. Heald, D. G. Streets, and Q. Zhang (2006), A comparison of analytical and adjoint Bayesian inversion methods for constraining Asian sources of CO using satellite (MOPITT) measurements of CO columns, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B875.
We apply the adjoint of an atmospheric chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem CTM) to constrain Asian sources of carbon monoxide (CO) with high spatial resolution using Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite observations of CO columns in the spring 2001. Results are compared to an inverse analysis with the same data set using a standard analytical solution to the Bayesian inverse problem and thus limited to coarse spatial resolution. The adjoint approach inverts for CO sources on the 2 x 2.5 degree grid resolution of GEOS-Chem, while the analytical approach partitions East Asia into just 10 regions. The corrections from the adjoint inversion to the a priori CO emission inventory are consistent with those of the analytical inversion when averaged over the large regions of the latter. They reveal, however, considerable subregional variability in these correction factors that the analytical inversion cannot resolve. For example, India shows large emission underestimates in the densely populated Ganges Valley, but large overestimates in the eastern part of the country where springtime emissions are dominated by biomass burning.
Li, L., R. Richards, and J. Jourdain (2006a), Global 3D mapping of tropospheric ozone and CO from TES: First results, vol. 36, p. 2065.
The TES instrument onboard the Aura satellite launched in July 2004 is a high-resolution infrared imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer It provides global 3D mapping of both ozone and CO among other trace gases with 2-3 and 1-1 5 pieces of vertical information for tropospheric ozone and CO respectively With the simultaneous measurements of ozone and CO and the vertical information TES provides a unique dataset for studying global air pollution and its long-range transport Some of the first results interpreting TES data are presented here TES CO-ozone relationship particularly the slope exhibits clear distributions that are indicative of ozone production over the source region and during transport when compared with results from the GEOS-CHEM global CTM Assimilation of TES CO mixing ratio profiles into the GEOS-CHEM model significantly improves model simulations in the middle and upper troposphere compared to observations from MOPITT and MOZAIC Global distribution of tropospheric ozone columns are derived from TES ozone profiles and are compared with GOME- and OMI-based results as well as results from the GEOS-CHEM model
Li, Q., P. Kasibhatla, J. Randerson, G. van der Werf, J. Collatz, and L. Giglio (2006b), Inverse Model Estimates of Global Carbon Monoxide Emissions Using GMD Network Observations, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.
We present an inverse analysis of global CO emissions by using network observations from NOAA’s Global Monitoring Division (GMD) and a global three-demensional atmospheric chemical transport model (GEOS- CHEM) simulation from 1997-2005. A priori estimates of CO emissions are taken from various inventories, including the GFED2 biomass burning emission inventory. The modeled CO mixing ratio are then compared with the observation at 71 GMD stations. Our inverse analysis focuses on the robustness of the a posteriori source estimates by assessing the sensitivity to statistical assumptions of errors. We also consider results from other transport models and MOPITT CO measurements in our analysis. We then use our best estimates to evaluate the contribution of fires to interannual variations in global carbon dioxide and methane growth rates.
Lin, Y., C. Zhao, and L. Peng (2006), Monthly CO Emissions Calculated Using MOPITT And MOZART, American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave., N.W. Washington DC 20009 USA, [URL:http://www.agu.org]. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/docview/20240091?accountid=28174.
An emission inventory is the starting point of air quality assessment. It helps us to better understand the atmospheric composition and evolution. Policymakers need it to establish an effect strategy for solving air quality problems. Carbon Monoxide, as one of the tropospheric pollutants, plays a key role in the composition of the troposphere. Recent studies found that the CO concentration simulated by the MOZART is 20% - 40% lower than the MOPITT observations and it is suggested that this discrepancy of CO may come from the underestimation of CO emission data. In this work we develop a new method to calculate monthly CO emission data using MOZART modeled 2004 CO data and MOPITT CO data. CO budget is analyzed at each grid point. New CO emission data based on EDGAR data is obtained with the ratios of processes controlling CO concentration such as transport, transform, deposition. MOPITT data will be used to constrain the model simulation and also be compared with global CO distribution modeled by MOZART using new CO emission data.
Liu, J., J. Drummond, and D. Jones (2006), Biomass Burning and CO Abundance Seasonal Cycle: An analysis of MOPITT Data, Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society, McDonald Building 150 Louis Pasteur, Ste 112 Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 Canada, [URL:http://www.cmos.ca]. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/21114407/13D5319C90B5D3CF5BA/1?accountid=28174 .
To isolate the effect of biomass burning on the atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) seasonal cycle, we compare the global CO data from the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) with fire count data from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR). For the first year of MOPITT operation from March 2000 to February 2001, which was a relative normal year in terms of fire activities, we found that atmospheric CO loading was strongly influenced by biomass burning in South America, Africa, and Australia. It is observed that the peak of fire activities is usually 1-2 months earlier than the peak of CO loading in South America and Africa, but not in Australia. As for other regions, biomass burning does not appear to be a dominant factor in controlling the CO seasonal pattern. Taking zonal statistics, CO loading is shown to be correlated with fire counts for the northern tropical region (0-30 degree N) and Southern Hemisphere (0-30 degree S and 30-90 degree S), while for the mid and high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (30-90 degree N), the seasonal cycle of CO loading reflects the combined effect of atmospheric oxidation capacity, fossil fuel emission, and biomass burning. As a result, globally averaged CO loading shows a double-peak pattern, with one peak in April-May and the other in October-November. Fire emission in Southeast Asia contributes partly to the first peak, while the emission in Southern Hemisphere contributes significantly to the second peak. The normal seasonal CO cycle in a region can be perturbed or even reversed by anomalies of fire activities, as exemplified by the severe fires in Indonesia in 2002 and in Russia in 2002-2003. The CO annual cycle is further analyzed using a 3-D global chemical transport model, the GEOS-CHEM model with a long-term averaged inventory of biomass burning. The comparison between the MOPITT measurement and the output from GEOS-CHEM model will be presented.
Livesey, N. J., Q. Li, N. A. Richards, J. H. Jiang, and J. W. Waters (2006), Quantifying the trans-Pacific transport of Asian pollution in the upper troposphere with Aura-MLS 2004-2006 observations, p. A4, American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave., N.W. Washington DC 20009 USA, [URL:http://www.agu.org]. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/docview/19988335/1419930EB9740CA811B/1?accountid=28174.
Tans-Pacific transport of Asian pollution has received considerable attention because of its global air quality and climate implications. It has been difficult to investigate long-range transport of pollution in the upper troposphere because of the lack of suitable observations. The launch of Aura-EOS, with its measurements of upper tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone among other species, makes it possible for the first time to systematically examine long-range transport in the upper troposphere. In this study we present an analysis of the first two years (September 2004- September 2006) of Aura-MLS upper tropospheric observations of CO and ozone, in conjunction with a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-CHEM), with a focus on (1) quantifying the temporal variability (i.e., frequency and strength) of trans-Pacific transport of Asian pollution in the upper troposphere, (2) delineating transport events in the upper troposphere from the ones in the middle and lower troposphere by combining and contrasting MLS and MOPITT observations of CO, and (3) examining the preferred meteorological conditions and associated processes including warm conveyor belt (WCB) that are responsible for these upper troposphere trans-Pacific transport of pollution.
Neary, L., J. W. Kaminski, J. C. McConnell, A. Lupu, J. Jiang, and M. Filipiak (2006), Evaluation of a five year global simulation with GEM-AQ, Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society, McDonald Building 150 Louis Pasteur, Ste 112 Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 Canada, [URL:http://www.cmos.ca], Toronto, Ontario, Canada. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/21107187/13CDCA751B17CEF8C5F/11?accountid=28174 .
The Global Environmental Multiscale model with air quality processes (GEM-AQ) has been developed by the Multiscale Air Quality Modelling Network (MAQNet). The model is based on the Canadian operational weather prediction model (GEM) and includes online chemical processes for 53 gas phase species and 4 size-resolved aerosol types. For this work, the model was run with a globally uniform resolution of 1.8x1.8 degrees and 28 vertical levels. To examine seasonal variations and regional distributions of ozone, results from a five year simulation will be presented and compared with monthly mean ozonesonde data and 2D climatology (Logan et al., 1999). Ozone precursor climatologies compiled by Emmons et al. (2000) also provide a useful means to identify issues relating to the processes and emissions used in the model. In addition to these surface-based observations, space-borne instruments such as MLS and OMI onboard the AURA satellite and MOPITT on the TERRA satellite can supply measurements for model evaluation. In addition to the above, a comparison of modelled and measured CO will be presented.
Paris, J., P. Nedelec, M. Ramonet, G. S. Golitsyn, B. D. Belan, I. G. Granberg, M. Y. Arshinov, G. Athier, F. Boumard, J. Cousin, and P. Ciais (2006), Lower Troposphere Stratification and Pollutant Transport over Siberia in April 2006, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A7.
In-situ airborne measurement of trace gases CO2, CO and O3 were performed during an intensive campaign over Central and Eastern Siberia, as part of the YAK-AEROSIB project. The campaign took place in April 11-14, 2006. At that time, the region was a weak source of CO2 (<1 gC m-2 d-1) but a number of fires occurred (http://maps.geog.umd.edu) south of the flight track, over north-eastern China. A total of 26 vertical profiles were collected from the ground level up to 7 km along a flight track of 5000 km between Novossibirsk and Yakutsk. The signature of local and more remote pollution sources was observed, associated with layers of elevated CO2 and CO concentrations, typically higher than 390 ppm and 250 ppb respectively. In most layers, a positive correlation between CO2 and CO is observed. The spatial extent of these layers can be tracked coherently on profiles up to 800 km apart. Layers are encountered above 3500 m, but they are more marked above 5000 m. This agrees well with a previously established climatology of ozone and water vapour layers in the troposphere from the MOZAIC programme. The representation of such layers in current chemistry transport is challenging, due to the model’s limited vertical resolution and vertical mixing parameterization. The CO vertical distribution indicated a high variability near the surface (140-300 ppbv), more stable, but still variable concentrations between 1 and 4 km (120-200 ppbv) and surprisingly elevated CO values aloft, reaching up to 250 ppbv in the Eastern part of the flight track. High ozone values were occasionally found in the free troposphere (50-60 ppbv) with one intrusion of stratospheric air and one occurrence of active photochemistry in the Kemerovo area. Elsewhere, the lack of correlation between CO and ozone suggests the presence of aged air masses, without active photochemistry. Systematic back-trajectories calculated for each profile pointed out to zonal flow conditions, bringing pollution from Europe to Siberia. Some air masses originating from China and Mongolia south of the flight track were however sampled further to the South-East. High altitude CO concentrations are higher in the southern part of the track. The complementary use of the MOPITT space-borne CO observations suggested that the high CO concentrations measured during the YAK-AEROSIB campaign were probably caused by the transport of polluted air from China.
Peng, L., C. Zhao, X. Zheng, X. Tie, and Y. Li (2006), Analysis Of Carbon Monoxide Budget In North China, American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave., N.W. Washington DC 20009 USA, [URL:http://www.agu.org]. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/20997152/13D67B341417399CE41/23?accountid=28174 .
China is experiencing an rapid growth in air pollutant emission as the results of the rapid industrial development and urban expansion. CO as one of the main tropospheric pollutants has a long lifetime and can be transported in intercontinental scale. In order to better understand CO chemistry in North China, in this work a global chemical transport model (MOZART-2; Model of Ozone and Related Tracers, version 2) is used to assess physical and chemical processes that control the budget of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) in North China. Satellite observations of CO from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument are combined with model for the analysis. The comparison between the model simulations and the satellite observations of tropospheric column CO (TCCO) shows that the model can reproduce the spatial and temporal distributions. However, the model results underestimate TCCO in middle-latitude of Northern Hemisphere. The tropospheric CO budget analysis suggests that in North China, surface emission (63Tg y-1) is the largest source of tropospheric CO. The maximum loss of CO in this region is attributed to the horizontal transport (-52Tg y-1). Chemical production and loss play important roles in the middle troposphere this region although the it is relatively smaller comparing with the surface emission and horizontal transport. The analysis also shows that the regional distribution of CO concentrations play a key role in determine the horizontal transport CO in and out North China from other regions of the world.
Randerson, J. T., G. R. van der Werf, D. C. Morton, G. J. Collatz, R. S. Defries, P. Kasibhatla, and L. Giglio (2006), Recent increases in fire emissions from South America derived from a combination of surface and atmospheric satellite observations, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/19972544/13D6CD9A7AC654112B3/47?accountid=28174.
We report estimates of fire emissions from South America during 2000-2005. In our analysis, we used MODIS satellite observations to estimate burned area and burning of woody fuels, the CASA biogeochemical model to estimate fuel loads and emissions, and MOPITT satellite observations as a top-down constraint in an atmospheric CO inversion using the GEOS-CHEM tracer model. We found that fire emissions substantially increased over the 6 years, from approximately 200 Tg C/yr during 2000 and 2001 to over 400 Tg C/yr during 2004 and 2005. MOPITT CO concentrations and MODIS aerosol optical depth estimates over South America provided additional evidence for an increasing trend, and for a large increase in emissions between 2003 and 2004. From the atmospheric inversion, we concluded that our forward model estimates of emissions were consistent with the global distribution of MOPITT CO observations and that they required little additional adjustment. Both the spatial pattern of emissions across the continent and our satellite-derived metric of woody burning implicate deforestation as a key driver of the increasing fire emissions trend. A combination of drought anomalies (derived from TRMM observations) and increases in the international market price of soy appear at least partly responsible for the very high carbon losses during 2004 and 2005.
Soja, A. J., R. B. Pierce, J. A. Al-Saadi, E. Alvarado, D. V. Sandberg, R. D. Ottmar, C. Kittaka, W. W. McMillian, G. W. Sachse, J. X. Warner, and J. J. Szykman (2006), Using RAQMS Chemical Transport Model, Aircraft In-situ and Satellite Data to Verify Ground-based Biomass Burning Emissions from the Extreme Fire Event in Boreal Alaska 2004, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, G7.
Current climate change scenarios are predicted to result in increased biomass burning, particularly in boreal regions. Biomass burning events feedback to the climate system by altering albedo (affecting the energy balance) and by direct and indirect fire emissions. Additionally, fire emissions influence air quality and human health downwind of burning. Biomass burning emission estimates are difficult to quantify in near-real-time and accurate estimates are useful for large-scale chemical transport models, which could be used to warn the public of potential health risks and for climate modeling. In this talk, we describe a methodology to quantify emissions, validate those emission estimates, transport the emissions and verify the resultant CO plume 100’s of kilometers from the fire events using aircraft in-situ and satellite data. First, we developed carbon consumption estimates that are specifically designed for near-real-time use in conjunction with satellite-derived fire data for regional- to global-chemical transport models. Large-scale carbon consumption estimates are derived for 10 ecozones across North America and each zone contains 3 classes of severity. The estimates range is from a low severity 3.11 t C ha-1 estimate from the Western Taiga Shield to a high severity 59.83 t C ha-1 estimate from the Boreal Cordillera. These estimates are validated using extensive supplementary ground-based Alaskan data. Then, the RAQMS chemical transport model ingests these data and transports CO from the Alaskan 2004 fires across North America, where results are compared with in-situ flight CO data measured during INTEX-A and satellite-based CO data (AIRS and MOPITT). Ground-based CO is 6 to 14 times greater than the typically modeled fire climatology. RAQMS often overestimates CO in the biomass plumes in comparison to satellite- derived CO data and we suspect this may be due to the satellite instruments low sensitivity to planetary boundary layer CO, which is prevalent in the near field plumes, and also the assumption of high-severity fires throughout the burning season. RAQMS underestimates biomass CO in comparison to in-situ CO data (146 out of 148 ascents and descents), and we suspect this may be due to RAQMS difficulty in defining narrow fire plumes due to the 1.4° x 1.4° resolution.
Turquety, S., D. J. Jacob, D. B. Jones, J. Logan, C. L. Heald, R. C. Hudman, F. Leung, R. M. Yantosca, S. Wu, L. K. Emmons, D. P. Edwards, and G. W. Sachse (2006), High Temporal Resolution Inverse Modeling of CO Emissions from North American Boreal Fires and Their Injection Height During the Summer of 2004, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, G4.
The summer of 2004 was one of the largest fire seasons on record for Alaska and western Canada, with a total estimate of 28.6 Tg CO emitted. Large uncertainty is associated with the current bottom-up emission inventories, due primarily to the difficulty to accurately estimate areas burned and fuel loadings. In addition, several studies have shown that boreal fires can have sufficient energy to trigger convection (so-called pyro- convection), injecting particles into the upper troposphere and even into the lower stratosphere. In order to reproduce the transport and global dispersion of pollution associated with these events, chemistry and transport models need to allow for injection heights well above the boundary layer. Due to the lack of auxiliary information on the altitude of fire plumes, arbitrary assumptions are currently used. This could result in large errors, particularly for the inverse modeling of fire emissions. The long-range transport patterns of fire plumes in a sheared wind environment, as observed from space by the MOPITT instrument, offer interesting constraint on the altitude of injection. In this study, we conduct a time-dependent inversion of the summer 2004 CO emissions with the GEOS-Chem CTM, based on the MOPITT observations. We use a Kalman smoother, which allows for a sequential estimate and optimizes the sources at a given time step relying on observations from current as well as subsequent time steps. We explore the sensitivity of inversion results to injection height, as well as the possibility to retrieve both the magnitude and the altitude of the fire emissions in the analysis.
Wang, Y., T. Zeng, and Y. Choi (2006a), Applications of a regional chemical transport modeling system: Operational air quality forecast, Arctic spring near-surface ozone depletion, and continental outflow from North America, American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St. Boston MA 02108-3693 USA, [URL:http://ams.confex.com/ams/htsearch.cgi]. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/20224538/13CA927FFFC839DC36/9?accountid=28174 .
A regional chemical transport modeling system is developed for simulations of regional tropospheric chemistry and air quality. Meteorological data assimilation (forecast) is conducted using the NCAR/Penn State MM5 with NCEP reanalysis (NOAA AVN forecast). The regional chemistry and transport model simulates emission, transport, chemistry, and deposition processes. The lateral and upper boundary conditions of trace gases are specified using the results from the global GEOS-CHEM model. We will discuss three specific applications of the modeling system. First, daily 48-hour air quality forecast over the continental U.S. using this system has been operational since August, 2003. The forecast is available online at http://apollo.eas.gatech.edu/forecast.html. Second, we applied the modeling system to simulate surface O3 depletion catalyzed by bromine radicals at northern high latitudes in spring 2000. Satellite observations of BrO column by GOME were processed to specify the BrO concentrations in the lower troposphere. The model reproduces the observed ozone depletions. The model captures reasonably well the O3 depletion events observed at surface sites and by airborne in situ and DIAL instrument during the TOPSE experiments at northern high latitudes. Model results indicate that low O3 concentrations (<20 ppbv) near the surface cover similar to 60% of the northern high latitudes and that the depleted O3 concentrations (<10ppbv) cover similar to 20% of the region in April. The high BrO events tend to be large-scale and persistent (1-2 weeks). Lastly, we applied the modeling system to analyze column observations of NO2 by GOME and CO by MOPITT over North America and surrounding oceans for April. Transient enhancements in these measurements due to lightning NOx production or convective transport are examined. Evidence is found for lightning enhancements of NO2 over the continent and western North Atlantic and for convective transport enhancements of CO over the ocean. The two independent satellite measurements show consistent enhancements related to convective events.
Wang, Y., T. Zeng, and H. Tian (2006b), Biofuel-driven prescribed burning and its effect on air quality in the southeastern United States, American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave., N.W. Washington DC 20009 USA, [URL:http://www.agu.org]. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/20225909/13D67B341417399CE41/22?accountid=28174 .
Rapid accumulation of biofuel in ecosystems across the southeastern United States poses ever present fire dangers. As a result, about 8 million acres of forest, range, and crop land are burned annually in the South. We simulate the biofuel accumulation using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM). To properly assess the interactions among ecosystems, prescribed fires, air quality, and regional climate, we make use of four state-of-the-science models, DLEM, EPA fire emission model, Models-3 components (CMAQ/MM5/SMOKE) and the Regional Climate Model (RegCM). In the first phase of the project, we use the EPA Models-3 system with the recently compiled fire emission inventories by the Visibility Improvement - State and Tribal Association of the Southeast (VISTAS) program. Extensive model evaluations are conducted to evaluate the quality of the emission inventory and the impact of fire emissions. Surface measurements from the SouthEastern Aerosol Research and Characterization Study experiment (SEARCH) and IMPROVE are used. Satellite measurements of CO by MOPITT and fire counts by MODIS are also employed. The model results with prescribed fire emissions are in much better agreement with surface measurements than those without fire emissions. Model sensitivity analysis indicates large enhancements of near-surface organic carbon (OC), element carbon (EC), as well as carbon monoxide (CO) over the Southeast. The utility of satellite observations in constraining prescribed fire emissions is investigated.
Wang, Y., Y. Choi, and T. Zeng (2006c), Operational regional air quality forecast in the United States and evaluations with in situ and remote sensing measurements, American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave., N.W. Washington DC 20009 USA, [URL:http://www.agu.org]. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/20226428/13D67B341417399CE41/21?accountid=28174 .
We developed a modeling system for daily 48-hour regional air quality forecast (RAQAST) for the United States. The forecast (http://apollo.eas.gatech.edu/forecast.html) has been operational since August, 2003. The RAQAST system incorporates meteorological predictions using the NCAR/Penn State MM5 model with a state-of- the-science chemical transport model to provide daily 48-hour forecast of the concentrations of ozone and its precursors. The initial and boundary conditions for meteorological fields are taken from the NOAA AVN forecast. The chemical lateral and upper boundary conditions of trace gas concentrations are specified using the monthly mean output from the global GEOS-CHEM model. Model simulations of ozone and its precursor have been evaluated extensively with surface, aircraft, and satellite measurements. Satellite measurements investigated include GOME NO2, MOPITT CO, and OMI and MLS O3. RAQAST simulations are compared with a coarser- resolution global model (GEOS-CHEM) to investigate the simulation dependence on model formulation and resolution and the sensitivity of satellite retrievals to model-derived a priori guesses. We also evaluate the potential of using satellite measurements for constraining lightning NO production and convective transport of pollutants to the western North Atlantic.
Worden, H. M., L. Jourdain, J. R. Worden, and J. Logan (2006), TES observations of the tropical lower troposphere in January 2005 and 2006, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B878.
We present ozone and carbon monoxide measurements for the lower troposphere (around 750 hPa) for the month of January in 2005 and 2006. Elevated ozone is persistent over Northern Africa, the Middle East and India and we find significant differences between TES and OMI total column ozone estimates for these regions. However, the TES measurements are in qualitative agreement with previous measurements of tropospheric column ozone retrieved from UV data using the scan angle method. We also see elevated carbon monoxide, corresponding to Northern Africa biomass burning regions, in agreement with MOPITT.
Yudin, V. A., D. P. Edwards, G. L. Francis, and J. C. Gille (2006a), Constraining CO Forecast With MOPITT Radiances: Assimilation of Space Data in the MOZART CTM, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B879.
Paper presents the first assimilation scheme of the MOPITT CO sensitive radiances as the primary space data in the MOZART CTM. The ensemble forecasting of CO by the CTM provides the dynamical a priori for the future radiance data insertion in the model. The outlined ensemble-based scheme helps directly interpret the information coming from the primary data (radiances) of multi-sensors on the same CTM grid. It shows that the radiances from the thermal channels with the deep layer weighting functions can only constrain the partial CO sub-columns in the free troposphere. We will highlight benefits of the radiance data analysis schemes comparing to the assimilation of reported retrievals. Implications for comparisons between the multi-sensor CO radiance data and retrievals (MOPITT, TES, AIRS) will be discussed. The generalized inverse schemes for the dual estimation of the free troposphere constituents and optimization of their surface sources with infrared radiance data are examined using the toy-CTM CO forecast and synthetic MOPITT radiances.
Yudin, V. A., J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, M. N. Deeter, S. –. Ho, and L. K. Emmons (2006b), Data assimilation of carbon monoxide in the troposphere, vol. 6299, pp. 62990K-62990K–12. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.680968.
The data assimilation of 2000-2004 carbon monoxide (CO) retrievals by the MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) instrument onboard the NASA Terra satellite provide an opportunity for the first time to study the transport and sources of pollution including their year-to-year variations. Based on the different representations of assimilated CO in the chemistry transport model (CTM) space and at the MOPITT retrieval grid this study advocates for direct mapping of CO-sensitive radiances or characterized CO retrievals by the chemical data assimilation schemes. The comprehensive CO forecast provides a great deal of information on the vertical scales that cannot be constrained by the measured radiances. It also provides comprehensive a priori specifications for the inverse problems especially for the vertical levels and geographical regions where the radiometer begins to misplace its high sensitivity to the CO loading. Evaluation of the multi-year MOPITT retrievals and assimilated CO against in situ CO statistics showed how the data assimilation helps to diminish a priori effects in the reprocessed CO retrievals. Data analysis of the multi-year data reveal substantial inter-annual variations of CO loading in the free troposphere and call for the unbiased tracer assimilation schemes in the CTM with optimized CO surface emissions.
Yurganov, L., W. McMillan, A. Dzhola, and E. Grechko (2006), 2006 Boreal Forest Fires: Tropospheric CO Perturbations Detected From Ground and Space, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A4.
Carbon monoxide is an excellent indicator of gaseous emissions from biomass burning. Boreal forest/peat fires in the Northern Hemisphere occur in spring and summer every year, but the severity of fires varies significantly. The fire seasons of 2002 and 2003 with record intense Siberian fires were followed by record North American fires in 2004 and the relatively weak fires in 2005 both in North America and Eurasia. We present a first look at tropospheric CO data obtained in 2006 and correlate this data with the occurrence of boreal fires. We will find the place of the 2006 season in the `ranking’ of the previous 10 years fire intensity. CO measured from satellites (AIRS/Aqua and MOPITT/Terra) as well as from the ground (Zvenigorod, near Moscow, Russia) will be analyzed and compared. As an example, a case, which occurred in July, will be discussed. CO was emitted at Central Siberia in mid-July and then transported to the Northwest to the Arctic. After that the plume returned to the continent and was detected over Zvenigorod using a ground based spectrometer. Motion of the plume also was tracked by aerosol index measurements from OMI/Aura.

2005

Arellano, A. F., P. G. Hess, P. S. Kasibhatla, and G. Petron (2005), Sensitivity of Top-Down Estimates of CO Sources to GCTM Transport, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, G5.
While recent inverse modeling studies have contributed towards the development of robust estimates of CO sources, the persistence of significant discrepancies in these estimates highlights the need to investigate possible methodological biases. Here, we explore the impact of using different forward global chemical transport models (GCTM) on top-down estimates of CO sources inferred from MOPITT CO columns for the April 2000 to March 2001 period. We focus, in particular, on two GCTMs, MOZARTv4 driven by NCEP reanalysis and GEOS-CHEMv5.5 which is driven by GMAO assimilated meteorology. We carry out two separate tagged CO simulations based on the same set of basis functions, prior CO emission inventories, and prescribed OH fields. Following the same Bayesian synthesis inversion for each case, we then look at the effect of model transport on the modeled CO and inferred source estimates. Detailed analysis on posterior error is presented in conjunction with a comparison of model results with NOAA CMDL surface measurements. We further show that this model inter-comparison, albeit limited in scope, provides important information on better characterizing model errors and improving top-down estimates of CO sources.
Bhattacharjee, P. S., and P. Roy (2005), Time series analysis of Carbon Monoxide from MOPITT over the Asian Continent from 2000-2004, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A1297.
The human population continues to grow and large parts of the world industrialize rapidly, causing changes in the global atmospheric chemistry. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a poisonous gas in the troposphere when highly concentrated, and is produced by fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and through natural emissions from plants. It is also an important trace gas in the atmosphere and plays a major role in the atmospheric chemistry. We present a study of CO from the measurement of MOPITT (Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere-Level 3 gridded data) instrument on NASA Terra satellite over India and Eastern Asia for the period of 2000-2004. Day- and night-time total column CO measurements are considered over the selected regions in India, China, Thailand and Japan. The selected regions comprise of industrial cities in the Asian continent which form the source of high CO in the atmosphere. The time series data do not show an overall increasing or decreasing trend, but CO is affected by seasonal variations, wind, and precipitation patterns. East Asian regions have higher and wider seasonal fluctuations than the Indian region. CO total column values over the Bay of Bengal are also high and can be explained through wind patterns from the land towards the ocean. Although the sources of CO are mostly confined to the land, it is transported globally through the atmosphere, and has high concentrations over the ocean.
Broek, M. P. van den, A. M. Gloudemans, I. Aben, H. Schrijver, and A. N. Maurellis (2005), SCIAMACHY CO and CH4 Measurements Compared to MOPITT and TM3, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, A24.
The near-infrared spectra measured by SCIAMACHY in nadir mode on the ENVISAT satellite enable us to retrieve total columns for CH4 and CO, from which global maps can be constructed. Since these trace species play an important role in air pollution and global climate change, such a global knowledge on their distribution is a prerequisite to fully understand their role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. Scientific retrieval algorithms have been developed at SRON that make use of the calibration and characterization of the near-infrared detectors, which have been performed in-house. Such a detailed characterization appeared to be necessary due to the growth of an ice layer on the IR detectors. Despite these difficulties, there is clear evidence that SCIAMACHY is sensitive to the distribution of lower tropospheric CO and CH4. For a few months in 2003 and 2004 CO and CH4 data from SCIAMACHY have been validated. Retrieved CH4 columns compare well with results of the TM3 atmospheric chemistry transport model. Similar model results have been compared to total column CO. The latter species has also been compared with data from the satellite instrument MOPITT, which measures CO in the thermal infrared.
Caldwell, D., J. Hackett, A. S. Gibson, J. R. Drummond, and F. Nichitiu (2005), The design and flight performance of the MOPITT instrument mechanisms, vol. 591, edited by B. Warmbein, pp. 99–106.
December 18, 2004 marked the fifth anniversary of the launch of NASA’s Terra satellite to study the Planet Earth, and the MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) instrument’s fifth year of successful operation monitoring carbon monoxide in the atmosphere. The MOPITT instrument contains five very different types of mechanisms, all precision engineered to meet the demanding mission requirements. This paper provides an overview of the mechanism designs along with measured long-term on-orbit performance. It gives accounts of on-orbit problems experienced with the mechanisms and describes how they were overcome. The results demonstrate how an appropriately chosen redundancy and fault isolation scheme have been essential to the continuing operation and success of the instrument.
Choi, Y., Y. Wang, T. Zeng, D. Cunnold, E. Yang, R. Martin, and K. Chance (2005a), Modeling analysis of springtime transition of NO2, CO and O3 on the basis of satellite measurements, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C58.
GOME measurements of NO2, MOPITT measurements of CO and tropospheric O3 derived from TOMS and SAGE measurements over North America in spring (February to May 2000) are analyzed using a regional chemical transport model (RCTM). The model simulates well the observed NO2 and CO columns. The contributions by photochemistry, lightning NOX emission, and convective transport to the observed seasonal changes of NO2 and CO columns are analyzed. The agreement between measurement-derived and simulated O3 columns is not as good even though both show an increasing trend. We use ozonesonde measurements during this period from 6 stations (35N to 53N) to investigate further the reasons for the discrepancies between satellite-measurement derived and simulated tropospheric O3 columns.
Choi, Y., Y. Wang, T. Zeng, D. Cunnold, E. Yang, R. V. Martin, and K. Chance (2005b), Modeling analysis of springtime transitions of O3, NOX, and CO over North America on the basis of in situ and satellite measurements, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, A1.
Trace gas simulations using the 3-D Regional chEmical trAnsport Model (REAM) for February to May 2000 over North America are applied to analyze surface, aircraft, and satellite measurements to understand the springtime transitions of key trace gas concentrations and export. The global GEOS-CHEM model is used to provide chemical initial and boundary conditions and the global model results are compared with REAM. Surface observations from AIRNOW (EPA) and SEARCH networks, aircraft observations from the TOPSE and MOZAIC experiments, ozonesondes, and remote sensing measurements from GOME, MOPITT, TOMS and SAGE are analyzed. Generally, the model results are in good agreement with the observations in the troposphere. Above 350 hPa, the mdoel has a low bias in simulated ozone concentrations due to the specified upper boundary concentrations. We highlight a few results here. We find that the simulated boundary layer structure is a key process that differentiates REAM simulations from GEOS-CHEM. As a result, the activation of photochemistry in the boundary layer and the resulting increase of ozone concentrations in spring are much faster in GEOS-CHEM than REAM or in surface observations. It also contributes to substantial difference of monthly mean NO2 columns between the two models. However, when averaged over the 4 months period, the model-to-model difference as well as month-to-month variability is averaged out. The agreement among GOME and two model simulated NO2 columns are well within the uncertainties of GOME measurements, rendering the a posteriori NOX emissions essentially the same as the a priori. Lastly, the lightning NOX production in REAM is much larger than GEOS-CHEM, resulting in better simulations of NO2 columns over the western North Atlantic than GEOS-CHEM. Consequently, REAM shows a significantly larger increasing trend of ozone column over the southern part of western North Atlantic than GEOS-CHEM.
Deeter, M. N., J. Gille, D. Edwards, S. Ho, V. Yudin, L. Emmons, and D. Ziskin (2005), Planned Improvements to the MOPITT CO Product, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, D909.
The next operational version ('Version 4’) of the algorithm used to retrieve CO profiles from observations made by the MOPITT ('Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere’) instrument is now being evaluated internally. The new algorithm will include numerous enhancements such as (1) variable a priori, (2) incorporation of all available thermal-channel radiances, (3) radiance bias correction and (4) updated surface emissivity a priori. The current MOPITT CO product ('Version 3’) exploits a “global” a priori profile derived from a large database of in-situ profiles. Use of this a priori profile in regions where the mean profile is substantially different than the global a priori profile leads to consistent retrieval biases. The new product, in contrast, will be based on a variable a priori which describes consistent geographical and seasonal variations in CO mixing ratio. Current efforts for deriving the variable a priori emphasize the use of assimilation to exploit both MOPITT observations and chemical transport modeling. Because of significant biases observed in some of the MOPITT thermal-channel radiances, only a subset of the available thermal-channel radiances are used to retrieve the CO profile in Version 3. This obstacle will be overcome in Version 4 processing through the application of radiance bias correction. This feature will allow use of all available thermal-channel radiances and substantially increase the information content (as quantified by the Degrees of Freedom for Signal, for example) in some situations. In addition to a priori information relative to the CO profile, the MOPITT retrieval algorithm requires a priori values for surface temperature and surface emissivity. In Version 4, a priori surface emissivity values will exploit emissivity maps derived from collocated observations of MOPITT and MODIS. Compared to Version 3, the new emissivity values typically exhibit smaller uncertainties which will also increase the information content of the CO product.
Dzhola, A., E. Grechko, and L. Yurganov (2005), CO Total Column Measurements in Russia and Comparison to MOPITT Data, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, D899.
Carbon monoxide total column amounts were measured at Zvenigorod Research Station near Moscow using a grating spectrometer. Spectra around R(2) and R(3) lines of CO fundamental band were analysed using a special retrieval technique. The data were compared to simultaneous measurements from MOPITT space-borne instrument. A case of forest/peat fires in Western Russia in summertime of 2002 is of special interest for a validation of MOPITT data in a source region.
Hunt, L. A. (2005), Human ”Footprints” in the Atmosphere: Anthropogenic Evidence in MOPITT and TES Atmospheric Chemistry Data, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, A3.
The Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) experiment was launched on board the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra Satellite in December 1999 and has accumulated more than five years of global carbon monoxide measurements. Available MOPITT data products include Level 1 radiances and Level 2 derived CO total column and mixing ratio profiles at a horizontal resolution of about 22 km at nadir and a vertical resolution of about 4 km. The primary sources of CO are biomass burning and industrial pollution, making CO an indicator of the anthropogenic influence on the atmosphere. MOPITT is the first instrument to make long-term global measurements of this species and is providing a better understanding of its transport, sources and sinks. A number of visual results will be included in this presentation. The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument is a high-resolution imaging infrared Fourier-transform spectrometer that operates in both nadir and limb-sounding modes. TES is flying aboard Aura, the third of NASA’s EOS satellites, which was launched in July 2004. Tropospheric ozone is a pollutant and a greenhouse gas. It has both natural and anthropogenic sources. TES makes global 3-D measurements of ozone and other chemical species involved in its formation and destruction, including water vapor, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric acid. The spatial resolution is 0.5 x 5 km in the nadir and 2.3 x 23 km in the limb. Level 1B spectral radiance data are currently available, and the Level 2 species data products will be publicly available in Summer 2005. Preliminary visual results will be shown. These data are available free of charge from the NASA Langley Atmospheric Sciences Data Center. Additional information can be found at http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov.
Jones, D. B., K. W. Bowman, C. L. Heald, M. Kopacz, J. R. Worden, Q. Li, and D. J. Jacob (2005), Estimates of surface emissions of atmospheric CO based on measurements from the TES instrument, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C3.
Atmospheric CO is a major precursor of tropospheric ozone and the main sink for tropospheric OH, the dominant atmospheric oxidant. Inverse modelling of measurements of CO has emerged as a powerful means for quantifying surface emissions of CO. We report results from the first inverse modelling of measurements of CO from the TES instrument, launched on the Aura satellite. Using a Bayesian synthesis inversion approach, we examine the constraints on estimates of the emissions of CO provided by TES. We conduct a global inversion analysis, with a particular focus on Asian sources of CO. We also compare the constraints offered by TES with those from the MOPITT instrument. Recently, studies have explored integrating space-based and aircraft measurements. We examine here the utility of integrating observations from the two satellite instruments in the inversion analysis. The MOPITT and TES data sets are incorporated separately and together in the inversion to quantify the consistency and complementarity of the two data sets toward quantifying the CO emissions.
Laat, J. de, A. Gloudemans, H. Schrijver, I. Aben, M. van den Broek, and J. Meirink (2005), Total carbon monoxide column variability: CTM model results and satellite measurements, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C4.
Carbon Monoxide is an important atmospheric trace gas. It plays a key role in the global OH budget and thus in the cleansing capacity of the atmosphere and often is also used as a tracer for pollutant transport. The satellite instruments SCIAMACHY and MOPITT have been measuring CO total columns for several years now, while other are just starting their measurements (e.g. TES on EOS-AURA, AIRS nf AUQA). These global CO measurements allow studying its inter and intra-annual variability. Therefore, we analyzed modeled CO total columns for the years 2003 and 2004 to investigate how CO total columns and their variability can be used in studying tropospheric processes. The model simulation was done with the TM4 model, developed at Utrecht University (IMAU) and the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute (KNMI). Among others, we identify known and less well known pollution transport pathways and also show that the CO total columns should be treated carefully when they are to be used as a proxy for near-surface CO. We also analyze SCIAMACHY total CO column measurements from the SRON-IMLM retrieval algorithm with regard to seasonal variations and compare them with the TM4 model results.
Li, Q., P. Kasibhatla, J. Randerson, G. van der Werf, L. Giglio, and J. Collatz (2005), Multi-year Inverse Modeling of Global CO Biomass Burning Emissions Using MOPITT Measurements, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C5.
Biomass burning is a significant global source of a variety of chemical and radiatively important trace gases. In terms of understanding the effect of biomass burning emissions on atmospheric chemical composition, it is important to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of these emissions. In this study, three-dimensional atmospheric chemical transport model simulations are used to simulate the distribution of CO from biomass burning emissions using a recently-developed source inventory for the 1997-2004 period. Here, we focus on an analysis of the simulated distribution of tropospheric column CO during the 2001-2004 period, using newly available satellite based measurements of tropospheric CO from the MOPITT instrument. The specific focus of our analysis is on the spatial and temporal patterns of interannual variations in tropospheric column CO. Under the assumption that short-term interannual variations in atmospheric column CO originate from interannual variations in biomass burning CO emissions, an inverse analysis methodology is used to estimate biomass burning CO emission anomalies in various geographical regions. These estimates are then used to estimate the extent to which short-term interannual variations in atmospheric CO2 can be explained by interannual variations in biomass burning emissions.
Petron, G., V. Yudin, C. Granier, B. Khattatov, L. Emmons, D. Edwards, and J. Gille (2005), Time-Dependent Bayesian Inversion of CO Surface Sources Based on the 2000-2003 MOPITT Satellite Data, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C1.
The MOPITT (Measurements Of the Pollution In The Troposphere) instrument onboard the NASA/Terra platform is a nadir looking gas correlation radiometer which measures radiances in the infrared. MOPITT retrievals have a horizontal resolution of 22km by 22km. The retrieved CO profiles are provided as seven vertically integrated CO concentrations and show between 1 to 2 degrees of freedom. The sensitivity of the instrument is maximal in the mid-troposphere. Here we present results of the first multi-year inversion of CO global surface sources based on MOPITT CO retrievals. We have implemented a recursive synthetic Bayesian time-dependent inversion using the global CTM (MOZART) driven with NCEP winds and the MOPITT CO retrievals averaged monthly and binned horizontally at the model resolution (2.8x2.8deg). A global inventory for CO anthropogenic direct sources has been derived for the time period spanning April 2000 to December 2003. The MOPITT data show a large inter-annual variability of the CO load in several regions. Some of this variability, especially in the boreal regions, can be linked to biomass burning emissions. The 4-year emission inventory will be described and compared with other top-down and bottom-up emission estimates. We will also present results of several sensitivity tests for the inversion and discuss the limitations of the method.
Pfister, G. G., L. K. Emmons, P. G. Hess, J. Lamarque, D. P. Edwards, A. M. Thompson, D. J. Wuebbles, R. L. Herman, C. R. Owen, R. Honrath, M. V. Martin, G. W. Sachse, M. Avery, and J. T. Randerson (2005), Implications of North American Boreal Fires on Air Quality and Composition in Nearby and Remote Regions, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B847.
During the summer of 2004, Alaska and Canada experienced intense wildfire episodes that emitted large amounts of pollutants and aerosols into the atmosphere. We are using simulations with the global chemistry transport model MOZART to study the impact of these emissions on air quality and composition over North America, the Northern Atlantic region, and Europe. The emission inventory we apply for the Alaskan and Canadian wildfires in these simulations is based on a top-down approach using MODIS fire counts, MOPITT CO observations, and the MOZART model. The model has been evaluated by comparison with a large suite of observations such as data from ozone sondes, surface measurements of CO, ozone and nitrogen species, and aircraft observations. The impact of the fires on the concentrations and distributions of the aforementioned trace species will be discussed, including aspects related to air quality. The mid- and lower tropospheric ozone load over North America for summer 2004 is about 7% higher in a simulation including the Alaskan/Canadian wildfires compared to a reference simulation without fires in this region. During July 2004 we estimate that, for about half the time, at least 30% of the ozone load in the lower and middle troposphere over Eastern Canada can be attributed to chemical production from precursors emitted by the fires. Over Western Europe, we find contributions of 10% and higher about one-third of the time. We are investigating the importance of the injection height of fire emissions on atmospheric transport and chemistry, e.g. on the production of tropospheric ozone, and examine the effects of the non-linearity in ozone chemistry. We further compare the radiative forcing of the fire induced increase in ozone concentrations to the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases released by the fires such as CO2 and methane.
Richards, N. A., and Q. Li (2005), Constraining Tropospheric CO and Ozone by Assimilating TES and MLS Tropospheric Retrievals Into a Global 3D CTM, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B38.
We present the first chemical data assimilation of TES and MLS tropospheric profile information into a global CTM. We use a sequential sub-optimal Kalman filter assimilation scheme to assimilate tropospheric profiles of CO and ozone into the GEOS-Chem model. The assimilation system produces a solution that is consistent with both the model and the data, within the uncertainties of each and provides an estimate of the error on the analysed product. The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an infrared instrument which was launched onboard NASA’s Aura satellite in 2004. TES is the first instrument to provide vertical information on tropospheric ozone whilst simultaneously measuring CO on a global basis. The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), also on Aura, provides information on the upper tropospheric concentrations of CO and ozone. The GEOS-CHEM model is driven by assimilated meteorological observations from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) of the NASA Global Modeling Assimilation Office (GMAO). The version of the model employed here is driven by GEOS-4 assimilated meteorological fields and has a horizontal resolution of 4 x 5 degrees with 30 vertical levels from the surface to 0.01 hPa. Results will be presented for the period of September 2004 - January 2005 and comparisons with independent measurements such as MOPITT and MOZAIC will be conducted to assess the quality of the assimilated product.
Stavrakou, T., and J. Muller (2005), A Grid-Based Inverse Modeling Approach For Constraining the CO Budget, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, G4.
The adjoint modeling technique has been recently used to invert for the emissions of ozone precursors (CO, biogenic VOCs, and NOx) in the IMAGES global chemical transport model [1]. The advantages of this framework compared to other inversion methods are that (1) non-linearities in the response of the calculated concentrations to changes in the emissions are taken into account (an important feature given the strong chemical feedbacks existing between ozone precursors), and (2) it can cope with an arbitrarily large number of control parameters. This latter feature is explored in the present study. The observations used in this work are monthly averaged total CO columns from MOPITT (May 2000 - April 2001) binned on the model grid. Two distinct approaches are compared for inverting CO emissions: in the first inversion setup, the annual fluxes of CO and NMVOC from anthropogenic, biogenic and biomass burning sources over large regions are optimized; in the second one, the parameters to be determined are the monthly emissions from every model grid cell and from each of three broad categories (anthropogenic, biogenic, biomass burning). The total number of unknowns is equal to 18 in the first, ”big-region” approach, while it is on the order of 30,000 in the second, ”grid-based” scheme. The inversion is overdetermined in the first case and underdetermined in the second one: about 6,000 observational elements are used, but most of them are redundant due to the large chemical lifetime of CO and strong horizontal mixing in the troposphere. To reduce the underdetermination, additional constraints are introduced, in the form of correlations between the a priori errors on the control parameters. Spatial correlations are estimated based on geographical distance, country boundaries, and ecosystems. Temporal correlations are also considered. The results from both the big-region and grid-based approaches are compared and evaluated against independent observations from aircraft campaigns and ground-based measurements. The resulting emissions are discussed and compared with previous inverse modeling studies. [1] J.-F. Muller and T. Stavrakou, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 1157-1186, 2005.
Tangborn, A., I. Stajner, S. Pawson, E. Nielsen, D. J. Jacob, and S. Turquety (2005), Assimilation of MOPITT CO Retrievals into the GMAO Constituent Assimilation System, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, A7.
We present initial results of assimilating weighted column averages of CO data from MOPITT into the GMAO constituent assimilation system. MOPITT is a nadir sounding instrument that makes use of spectrally distinct channels which peak at different altitudes in order to retrieve CO profiles. Associated with the profile retrievals are averaging kernels, which indicate the contribution of each atmospheric layer to the total column CO. This vertical dependence is included in the assimilation by applying the averaging kernels to the background CO field, in order to weight them in a manner consistent with the MOPITT observations. The background fields are provided by an on-line transport calculation in the GEOS-4 General Circulation Model, coupled to a parameterized chemistry module, using production rates and loss frequencies derived from the GEOS-Chem model at Harvard University. Estimates of surface sources of CO are determined daily from space-based observations of biomass burning, along with climatological distributions of fossil-fuel emissions. The focus of the analysis is on the northern summer of 2004, over the period of the Intex-NA field mission, with an examination of the impacts of assimilation on estimates of CO in- and out-flow through the boundaries of North America.
Turquety, S., D. J. Jacob, R. C. Hudman, J. A. Logan, R. M. Yevich, F. Leung, R. M. Yantosca, C. L. Heald, L. K. Emmons, and D. P. Edwards (2005), Importance of Peat Burning and Injection Heights in Boreal Fire Emissions: Evaluation With MOPITT Satellite Observations for the Summer 2004, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B862.
The summer of 2004 was one of the strongest fire seasons on record for Alaska and western Canada. We present a daily process-based fire emission inventory for that season, including consideration of peat burning and high-altitude (buoyant) injection, and evaluate it in a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem CTM) simulation of CO through comparison with MOPITT satellite and ICARTT aircraft observations. The inventory is constructed by combining daily area burned reports and MODIS fire hotspots with average estimates of fuel consumption and emission factors based on ecosystem type, and partitioning emissions between crown and surface fires, and the burning of the ground-layer organic matter. We estimate the contribution from peat burning using drainage and peat distribution maps for Alaska and Canada. According to these maps, more than 20% of the reported 5.1 million hectares burned during the summer 2004 were located in peatlands. We show that the associated burning could have a large contribution, increasing the emissions of CO from about 19 Tg CO (if only above-ground burning is considered) to more than 28 Tg CO. Our GEOS-Chem simulation shows that including emissions from peat burning improves the agreement between simulated and observed CO, and suggests that peat becomes more combustible as the season progresses. Model comparisons to observations are very sensitive to the altitude of injection of the fire emissions in the CTM, highlighting the importance of considering pyro-convective events when simulating fire influences or using atmospheric observations of trace gases as top-down constraints on fire emissions.
Warner, J. X., W. W. McMillan, C. Barnet, M. M. Comer, L. L. Strow, D. Edwards, L. Emmons, M. Deeter, and J. Gille (2005), Cross Validation of Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Measurements Between AIRS and MOPITT on a Global Basis, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, D89.
Tropospheric carbon monoxide has been observed from space by the two instruments: MOPITT onboard EOS/TERRA since March 2000 and AIRS onboard EOS/AQUA since September 2002. The measurement principles and the retrieval methods to obtain the tropospheric CO are different for these instruments. Although each instrument is undergoing a continued effort to validate its products against the air-borne and surface measurements, the cross-validation between the two instruments provides valuable information where traditional validation is not possible. Cross-validated global CO products will help build the foundation for a continued CO climate record from different space-borne instruments. The two global datasets are correlated under various chemical and meteorological conditions and the implications are discussed. The tropospheric CO distributions and variabilities are also discussed from the point-of-view of comparisons. The two measurements show strong agreement on the global distributions of CO and seasonal variations. CO is higher in the Northern hemisphere especially in the spring when associated with higher emissions due to more frequent biomass burning events and industrial pollution, combined with lower sink for CO. At late summer, CO concentration in the Northern hemisphere decreases due to the increased OH amount and reaches a comparable level as in the Southern Hemisphere. In-situ CO profiles measured from INTEX-A will be compared with both AIRS and MOPITT profiles and the vertical information contents for both satellite instruments will be discussed. Continued study will provide insights to understand the differences between AIRS and MOPITT CO global measurements and the impact on climate studies. This study will also improve our understanding on remote sensing principles and retrieval techniques that will benefit algorithm development for future instruments.
Yudin, V. A., G. Petron, J. Lamarque, J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, L. K. Emmons, and M. N. Deeter (2005), On the role of data assimilation in the remote sensing and modeling of tropospheric gases and their sources, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, G6.
The paper highlights the role of data assimilation schemes in the global monitoring of tropospheric gases and combined model-data analysis of the ground-based and multi-platform satellite constituent observations. The key novel assignments of these data fusion tools (along with the traditional function of the global mapping) will be (a) identification of the systematic data-model discrepancies (biases); (b) evaluation of the consistency between the multi-instrument space and in situ data; and (c) implication for constraining the input model sources with appropriate error analysis. Correction of the data biases and optimization of the strength of sources over ”observable” regions can help produce the ”bias-free” assimilative constituent maps and short-term forecasts of targeted species in the data constrained chemistry transport models (CTM). These assimilative fields and forecasts can provide in turn time-evolving a priori information in the constituent retrievals from the satellite radiance data. Several illustrations of the timeliness of this strategy application to the evaluation of carbon monoxide concentrations and budget with the multi-year MOPITT data and MOZART CTM will be discussed. The perspectives of the combined state (concentration)-parameter (emission) estimation will be highlighted with the toy model scenarios and synthetic data that mimic the satellite constituent retrievals (profiles and errors) including their seasonal and year-to-year variations induced by the surface emissions.
Yurganov, L., D. Edwards, E. Grechko, I. Kramer, E. Mahieu, J. Notholt, P. Novelli, A. Strandberg, and R. Sussmann (2005), Boreal Forest Fires of 2002-2004: Eurasian and North American Impacts on CO Burden, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C4.
Ground-based (FTIR and surface sampling) and MOPITT data revealed perturbations of CO burden in the mid/high latitudes of Northern Hemisphere in 2002-2004 in comparison to 2000-2001. CO emission anomalies are estimated as 100-130 Tg/yr in 2002 and 2003, 31 Tg/yr in 2004.

2004

Arellano, A. F., and P. S. Kasibhatla (2004), Estimates of Time-dependent CO Sources Inferred From Global MOPITT CO Measurements, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, B8.
Global measurements of CO from MOPITT offer an opportunity to greatly enhance our present knowledge of tropospheric chemistry, particularly in terms of better constraining the temporal and spatial variability of CO sources. We will present here results derived from time-dependent synthesis inversions of regional and sectoral sources of CO using MOPITT CO measurements. Estimates of monthly CO emissions for the first year of operation of MOPITT will be shown. We highlight in particular the differences between recent top-down and bottom-up estimates of Asian sources as well as variations in the seasonal distribution of large-scale biomass burning sources. In addition, we compare time-dependent and time-independent inversion estimates of CO sources.
Arellano, A. F., P. S. Kasibhatla, L. Giglio, G. R. van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, and G. Collatz (2004), Inverse Modeling of Tropospheric CO Using Satellite Measurements, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A98.
The availability of remotely-sensed CO measurements from the MOPITT instrument provides an opportunity to better characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of CO sources. This is especially true for biomass burning emissions given the recent availability of complementary datasets of fire parameters derived using other satellite measurement products. In this study, we present estimates of time-dependent CO sources by region and sector derived from a global synthesis inversion using MOPITT CO column measurements. We present monthly CO emission estimates for April 2000 to March 2001 and focus, in particular, on the seasonal distribution of large-scale biomass burning emissions. A satellite-constrained fire emission product is used as a starting point in the inversion. Our analyses show the combined utility of MOPITT CO measurements and fire emission product in characterizing the spatial and temporal CO biomass burning emissions. Differences between top-down estimates and satellite-constrained fire emission inventories are identified as a first step towards improving the global fire emission product.
Bhoi, S., J. Qu, and S. Dasgupta (2004), Estimating Effects of Brazilian Forest Wildfires on the Carbon Monoxide Concentration, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B116.
Forest wildfires have dramatically increased in recent years due to global warming and extreme dry conditions. Forest wildfires spew out a significant amount of atmospheric pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, due to incomplete burning of the biomass. According to United State Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a high increase of carbon monoxide leads to the formation of carboxyhemoglobin in blood which decreases the oxygen intake capacity of human body and at moderate concentration angina, impaired vision and reduced brain function may occur. As compared to Northern America where significant amount of carbon monoxide released is caused by combustion devices and furnace, the increase of carbon monoxide concentration in Brazilian regions is mainly attributed to the forest fires. In this study, carbon monoxide datasets from the Measurements of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT) have been analyzed to see the amount of increase in the carbon monoxide concentration after forest wildfires, ire, particularly in summer of 2003. The study reveals that there is a significant increase in the carbon monoxide concentration after forest fires.
Bian, H., B. Duncan, M. Chin, and P. Kasibhatla (2004), Regional and global CO and aerosol correlations: An integrated approach of surface, satellite, and aircraft measurements and model simulations, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C828.
We investigate regional and global CO and fine mode aerosol correlations by combining GOCART model simulations with various measurements from surface (CMDL /CO and AERONET / aerosol), satellite (MOPITT / CO and MODIS / aerosol), and aircraft. CO mixing ratios and aerosol concentrations are examined using surface and aircraft measurements on several representative regions. Satellite observations provide the comparisons of CO column and aerosol fine model AOD at global scale. Numerical model simulation allows us to compare CO and aerosol properties without temporal and spatial limitations and with the capability to trace emissions by isolating different sources. Our zonal mean comparisons support the previous findings that the variations of CO and aerosol properties are out of phase by several months over northern hemisphere middle latitudes where anthropogenic emissions dominate. Over the biomass burning regions, such as southern hemisphere (SH) extra-tropics, the concentration and column properties of CO and aerosol show more agreement. Long-term transport and local chemistry drive the biggest phase shift of CO and aerosol properties over remote SH ocean regions. There are much more complicated relationships of CO and aerosol properties over stations and small regions due to emission, transport, and local chemistry.
Bremer, H., and T. Team (2004), The Spatial and Temporal Variation of MOPITT CO in Africa and South America: A comparison with SHADOZ Ozone and MODIS Aerosol, vol. 35, edited by J.-P. Paillé, p. 4375.
Carbon monoxide (CO) measurements from the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) experiment are used to explore the correlation between biomass burning and ozone profiles at 6 tropical stations namely Reunion, Irene, Natal, Ascension, San Cristobal and Paramaribo. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at each station indicate the strong influence of African and South American biomass burning. All stations show enhanced CO columns during September-November (SON) corresponding to austral burning. Further, the effects of Sahelian burning can be seen at Natal and Ascension. Similarly the signature of northern Amazonian fires can be observed at San Cristobal. The CO variations are generally similar to the variations of aerosol optical depth (AOD)retrieved contemporaneously from MODIS at most stations, with notable differences at Irene, San Cristobal and Paramaribo. Tropospheric ozone from SHADOZ ozonesonde measurements at all stations show elevated levels, corresponding to the CO enhancements in SON months. However, there are several instances of ozone enhancements unaccompanied by any CO increase. This might indicate, that sources other than biomass burning such as stratospheric tropospheric exchange (STE) or lightning related NOx may be operative. At San Cristobal strong CO enhancements during March-April are not accompanied by any significant change in ozone.
Bremer, H., J. Kar, J. R. Drummond, F. Nichitiu, J. Zou, J. Liu, J. C. Gille, M. N. Deeter, G. Francis, D. Ziskin, and J. Warner (2004), Estimate of Global Carbon Monoxide Budget Derived From MOPITT Data, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, B5.
Carbon monoxide influences the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere as the major sink of OH radicals. Thus it is very important to have an accurate estimate of the CO budget of the atmosphere. CO is measured from a variety of platforms. Surface concentrations are measured on a regular basis at a number of stations worldwide and other measurements are made by commercial aircraft, and satellites. On the basis of these measurements the general features of global CO distribution have been established and it is well known, that CO concentrations are higher in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere. However, another important source of CO is biomass burning, much of which takes place in the southern tropics. In particular the seasonal biomass burning in Africa and South America injects large plumes of CO into the atmosphere which in turn affect tropospheric ozone concentrations. Another very significant emission source is Indonesia, where land-use conversion projects among other reasons have resulted in large biomass burning in recent years. In this work, we used total atmospheric column measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) from the MOPITT (Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere) instrument to study the CO burden of the atmosphere. The global budget of CO has been estimated from the satellite measurements for the first time. The total emission of CO is estimated to be 1900-2230 Tg/year which is near the lower end of the previous estimates from models and climate change assessment reports. We assumed the reaction with OH to be the primary sink of CO and neglected all others including surface deposition. This sink is estimated to be 1890-2185 Tg, which is also within the range estimated previously. In addition we calculated CO emissions from a biomass burning event in August-November, 2002 in Indonesia. The emitted CO amount was estimated to be about 66 Tg, which is about half of the estimated emission from the 1997 Indonesian fires.
Clerbaux, C., D. Edwards, L. Emmons, J. Gille, S. Massie, G. Petron, X. Tie, T. M. S. Team, B. Barret, and E. Mahieu (2004), Tracking of Pollution Plumes Using MOPITT Measurements, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, C5.
The measurements performed by the MOPITT remote sensor onboard TERRA provide global scale information on the CO distribution for a period of 4 years. When studying the CO budget over a specific geographic area, one has to take into account different sources, including biomass burning and industrial emissions, to understand the CO concentration as measured by the instrument. This work investigates the possibility of detecting pollution plumes directly emitted above major cities using the MOPITT data. A selection of the more qualitatively reliable retrieved L2 data was performed. We have chosen several locations, both over polluted cities (e.g. LA, Mexico City, Beijing) and over remote areas (Jungfraujoch Alpine station), to analyse the time-evolving CO concentrations as measured by MOPITT and to compare these data with local measurements, and with regional CTM model simulations.
Deeter, M. N., L. K. Emmons, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, and J. R. Drummond (2004), Seasonal and Geographic Trends in Performance of MOPITT CO Profile Retrievals, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, A2.
Retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO) tropospheric profiles by the MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) satellite instrument rely primarily on measurements of thermal infrared radiation in a band near 4.7 microns. With respect to information content (and vertical resolution), the performance of the MOPITT CO retrieval algorithm depends on the surface temperature and atmospheric temperature profile. Seasonal and geographical variability of these geophysical parameters imposes corresponding variability on the performance of the MOPITT retrieval algorithm. For example, weak thermal contrast in polar regions (associated with low surface temperatures and weak thermal gradients in the troposphere) produces retrievals which are typically weighted by a priori information more heavily than in tropical regions. In this study, retrieval information content is quantified by Degrees of Freedom for Signal (DFS), which is calculable from the retrieval averaging kernel matrix. Both seasonal and geographic trends in DFS will be presented.
Drummond, J., J. Gille, and T. M. S. Team (2004a), Carbon Monoxide Measurements from the MOPITT Instrument, vol. 35, edited by J.-P. Paillé, p. 3784.
The Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument was launched in late 1999 to measure CO in the lower atmosphere. In the four years that it has been in operation it has gathered a wealth of information regarding this major pollutant gas in the lower atmosphere. MOPITT data has given us the first global window into tropospheric composition at moderate time and spatial resolution. This talk will first discuss the performance of the MOPITT instrument in orbit and how the systems have performed over four years of continuous operation. The major systems have proven extremely stable and robust over this time period. This talk will also introduce some of the features of the MOPITT data by showing some examples of studies of biomass burning, transport and other phenomena that can now be studied using data alone. These data provide new insights into tropospheric processes and can confirm or deny the validity of model simulations. Finally we will discuss the future of this type of measurement in the context of other instrumentation in orbit and the future of tropospheric measurements of carbon monoxide.
Drummond, J., J. Liu, F. Nichitiu, J. Kar, H. Bremer, J. Zou, and J. Gille (2004b), Global Distributions of Carbon Monoxide Total Column: A Statistical Analysis from MOPITT Data, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, B1.
Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) on board NASA Terra satellite is a sensor developed for measuring carbon monoxide (CO) from space. The CO measurements made by MOPITT have greatly enhanced our understanding of temporal and spatial distributions of CO in the atmosphere and the mechanisms governing the distributions. In this study, the global CO data are statistically analyzed in terms of CO total column variations with time, latitude, longitude, and altitude. This statistics provides a new and comprehensive overview of global CO distributions in a quantitative way. The information is useful not only to atmospheric science community but also to other disciplines and public, owing to the importance of CO as a major pollutant, a precursor of ozone, and its effects on many atmospheric chemical processes. The CO data have illustrated the combined effects of natural and anthropogenic factors on the CO distributions in the atmosphere. The preliminary results from the analysis are highlighted as follows: (1) The mean CO of the northern hemisphere usually reaches its maximum in April-May, mainly because of low atmospheric oxidation capacity at the time. The maximum CO of the southern hemisphere often appears in October-November due to large fire events. As a result, seasonal variation of global mean CO generally shows two peaks at a level up to 2.0 ’ 1018 molecules/cm2, in April-May and October-November. (2) As land is a source of CO and the fraction of land increases with latitude, global annual mean CO total column increase with latitude from ∼1.0 ’ 1018 molecules/cm2 in the south pole to 2.1 ’ 1018 molecules/cm2 at 0o, then staying around that level up to the north pole. When looking at CO over land only, a peak of 2.3 ’ 1018 between -10oS and 10oN and a trough at 34oN can be found. The former results from vegetation fires in the tropics and the latter is due to the Plateau of Tibet. The CO averaged over oceans increases from the south pole to 50oN and then decreases slightly along latitude. The trend of CO with latitude is similar to that for CO2. (3) Along longitude circles, global annual mean CO fluctuates from 1.6 to 1.9 ’ 1018 molecules/cm2, a variation smaller than that across latitudes. The fluctuation is larger over land than that over oceans. (4) Considering both latitude and time, the rate of CO increase with latitude is the smallest in June/July (∼ 0.006 ’ 1018 molecules/cm2 per degree between ±60o) and the largest in April/May (one time bigger than that for June/July). The amplitude of seasonal variation of CO is low in the southern hemisphere at 45oS and 5oS (0.4 ’ 1018 molecules/cm2 per year). In the northern hemisphere, the amplitude is ∼0.6 ’ 1018 molecules/cm2 per year with a small change with latitude. (5) CO total column generally decreases with altitude because of the reduction of air mass. In terms of the global annual mean, CO total column declines at a lapse rate of 0.3 ’ 1018 molecules/cm2 per kilometer. (6) With a series of daily global mean CO from 2000 to 2004, a short-time trend of 0.025 ’ 1018 molecules/cm2 per year is found. A long-term trend can be established if MOPITT continues on orbit for a longer period and other space-borne instrument shall be available to replace MOPITT when it is not operating.
Edwards, D., L. Emmons, D. Hauglustaine, A. Chu, J. Gille, Y. Kaufman, G. Petron, L. Yurganov, and J. Drummond (2004a), Observations of Carbon Monoxide and Aerosol From the Terra Satellite: Northern Hemisphere Variability, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, C2.
Measurements from the Terra satellite launched in December of 1999 now provide a global record of the recent inter-annual variability of tropospheric air quality: carbon monoxide (CO) from the Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument, and of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This paper compares and contrasts these data sets with a view to understanding the general features of the overall pollutant loading of the Northern Hemisphere (NH). We present a detailed examination of the seasonal and recent inter-annual variability of the fine mode AOD and CO column, first considering the variation of the global zonal average for both quantities, and then concentrating on several geographical regions with the aim of isolating different emissions. This is accompanied by a discussion of the various sources and sinks of CO and of the aerosol types that contribute to the fine mode AOD. In a zonal sense, the principal NH sources are related to anthropogenic urban and industrial activity. We show that both the CO loading and the AOD zonal seasonal variations reflect the atmospheric oxidant loading which determines the primary sink of CO and the production of sulfate aerosol. As a consequence, the seasonal cycles are several months out of phase, with perturbations resulting from wildfire or biomass burning emissions. In these cases, carbonaceous particles define the AOD, and this results in the best correlation with the CO column. The MODIS AOD measurement is more sensitive to the boundary layer than the MOPITT CO measurement, thus making it the more reliable indicator of wildfire and biomass burning locations. Conversely, the MOPITT CO measurement is more useful for tracing long-range transport of fire emissions. The two measurements are therefore complimentary in building up the overall picture of plume evolution. Of the four years of data available from the Terra satellite, the Winter and Spring of 2002/2003 showed anomalously high NH pollutant loadings compared to the previous years. This was a result of fires in western Russia in the late Summer and Fall of 2002, and intense fires in the southeast of Russia in the Spring of 2003. We examine these events using fire counts from MODIS to indicate the burning regions, and investigate how the timing of the fires in relation to atmospheric oxidant concentrations affects the resultant seasonal pollutant loadings. Finally, we trace the emissions from these fires to indicate how intense local pollution sources can impact continental and global scale air quality.
Edwards, D., L. Emmons, A. Chu, J. Gille, Y. Kaufman, S. Massie, and J. Drummond (2004b), Satellite Observations of African Biomass Burning Emissions and Their Impact on Tropospheric Air Quality, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, D2.
Satellite remote sensing offers one of the best opportunities for making global measurements of tropospheric trace gases and aerosols over extended periods of time. It provides an integrating step between observations of emission sources and subsequent in-situ measurements taken some distance away, thus allowing the the examination of the impact of intense local pollution sources on continental scale air quality. Measurements from the Terra satellite launched in December of 1999 now provide a global record of the recent inter-annual variability of tropospheric air quality: carbon monoxide (CO) from the Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument, and of aerosol optical depth from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In this paper we use different sensor measurements to obtain a broader picture of the processes affecting tropical tropospheric chemistry and transport over Africa and the Atlantic and Indian Oceans at different times of the year. We use the signatures of large biomass burning events to trace the long-range transport of pollutant emissions and their effect on air quality in remote regions as revealed through comparisons with in-situ measurements and satellite estimates of tropospheric ozone. We also assess the role of large-scale convection in delivering biomass burning pollutants to the upper troposphere. When used in conjunction with satellite fire detection, the availability of global CO and aerosol data from the last 3 years also allows us to study variability in biomass burning and the corresponding influence that this has on seasonal and inter-annual variability of atmospheric pollutant burdens on the global scale.
Emmons, L. K., M. Deeter, D. Edwards, J. Gille, D. Ziskin, G. Francis, V. Yudin, S. Ho, P. Novelli, and J. R. Drummond (2004), Validation of Four Years of MOPITT CO Retrievals with Independent Measurements, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, B6.
Validation of the MOPITT retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO) has been performed with a varied set of correlative data. These include in situ observations from a regular program of aircraft observations at five sites ranging from the Arctic to the tropical South Pacific Ocean. These correlative measurements are a crucial component of the validation of the retrieved CO profiles and columns from MOPITT. The current validation results indicate good quantitative agreement between MOPITT and in situ profiles, with an average bias less than 20 ppbv at all levels. The temporal stability of the validation results will be shown using comparisons with the aircraft in situ samples, as well as surface measurements and ground-based spectroscopic measurements.
Gille, J., V. Yudin, L. Lyjak, M. Deeter, D. Edwards, L. Emmons, D. Ziskin, J. Chen, and J. Drummond (2004), Trans-Pacific Transport of CO Derived From MOPITT Observations and Data Assimilation, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, C4.
The Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument on the EOS Terra Spacecraft has obtained data from which the vertical distribution and total columns of CO have been obtained on a global basis since March 2000. These data have been assimilated using the MOZART model, combined with the source strengths inferred by Petrone et al. This results in daily, global data from which studies of transport can be made. Here we present results detailing the transports from January-May, the months of maximum transport from Asia across the Pacific toward North America. The agreement between original measurements and the assimilation results shows that the original accuracy is retained, but missing areas are filled in to provide a more complete picture. The mix of sources from biomass burning in SE Asia and industrial regions in China and elsewhere is displayed. The magnitude of the derived transports are shown as cross-sections at several longitudes, indicating the expected movement toward higher latitude and altitude as the air moves eastward. These are compared with trajectory analyses, which show the fates of some of the plumes. Comparing 3 years of data gives an idea of the size of interannual variations.
Gloudemans, A. M. S., H. Schrijver, A. G. Straume, I. Aben, A. N. Maurellis, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, C. Frankenberg, T. Wagner, and J. F. Meirink (2004), Ch4 and Co Total Columns from SCIAMACHY: Comparisons With TM3 and MOPITT, vol. 562.
The methane (CH4 ) and carbonmonoxide (CO) total columns retrieved from SCIAMACHY’s near-infrared channel 8 have been compared to measurements from the MOPITT satellite instrument, and with model calculations by the chemistry transport model TM3. Since the operational products for these species still deviate from the expected levels by orders of magnitude, results from independent scientific algorithms are presented here. The total columns from each of these scientific algorithms are similar, but significant differences still remain. First results show that both monthly averaged and daily data show good agreement with TM3 model calculations and measurements from the MOPITT satellite.
Heald, C. L., D. J. Jacob, D. B. Jones, P. I. Palmer, J. A. Logan, D. G. Streets, G. W. Sachse, and J. C. Gille (2004), Integrating MOPITT and aircraft observations in inverse modeling of Asian CO emissions, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, A6.
Satellite and aircraft observations of trace species provide independent top-down constraints on emissions. We examine the consistency of these very different observations. Daily MOPITT satellite observations and CO data from the TRACE-P aircraft mission over the NW Pacific are applied here to the regional estimation of CO emissions from different Eurasian regions for the spring of 2001. We use the GEOS-CHEM global 3-D model of atmospheric chemistry as the forward model. A priori estimates of Asian emissions are based on gridded inventories for the observation period. We account for the model transport error using an approach based on paired forecasts of CO as well as differences between observations and simulated concentrations. This method accounts for the daily spatial correlations of the errors. We examine the sensitivity of the a posteriori source estimates to the structure of the error covariance as well as the range of Asian emission source strengths defined by the combination of the satellite and aircraft observations. MOPITT observations indicate that emission estimates are underestimated in regions dominated by anthropogenic sources, whereas biomass burning emissions are overestimated. The range of a posteriori solutions provides a better estimate of the uncertainty of the solution than the a posteriori errors and can in some cases exceed the a priori uncertainty on the source. We find that the aircraft and satellite observations are broadly consistent in terms of their constraints on regional CO sources, but that the satellite observations allow for additional source disaggregation.
Ho, S. –., D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, J. Chen, and D. Ziskin (2004), Improvement of the global surface emissivity from MOPITT measurements and its impacts on the retrievals of tropospheric carbon monoxide profiles, vol. 5652, edited by & M.-H. A. S. C. Tsay, T. Yokota, pp. 124–135. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.579046.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important tropospheric trace species and can serve as a useful tracer of atmospheric transport. The Measurements of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument uses the 4.7 μm CO band to measure the spatial and temporal variation of the CO profile and total column amount in the troposphere from space. Launched in 1999 on board the NASA Terra satellite, the MOPITT views the earth with a pixel size 22 km by 22 km and a cross-track swath that measures a near-global distribution of CO every 3 days. In the operational MOPITT CO retrieval algorithm (V3; Version 3), surface skin temperature (Ts) and emissivity (E) are retrieved simultaneously with the CO profile. The accuracy of E and Ts is crucial for obtaining the CO retrieval within the 10% accuracy from the MOPITT measurements. However, because both Ts and E are retrieved from the same piece of information from the MOPITT measurements, the accuracy of both valuables may be limited. Extra surface skin temperature information is needed to determine surface emissivity, and vice versa. In this study, we use MODIS Ts within the MOPITT FOVs, in conjunction with those MOPITT signals most sensitive to the background scene, to compute the surface emissivity through an iterative retrieval algorithm. A monthly 1degree grid averaged 4.7 μm surface emissivity map is generated. The evaluation of the accuracy of this monthly 1 degree grid averaged 4.7 μm surface emissivity map is presented and its impacts on the retrievals of tropospheric CO profiles from the MOPITT measurements are also discussed.
Hunt, L. A. (2004), MOPITT data and tools available from the Atmospheric Sciences Data Center, vol. 1, p. 7 vol. (cviii+4896).
The Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument measures carbon monoxide and methane in the troposphere over the entire globe. It was launched onboard the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra satellite in December 1999. MOPITT data products are archived and distributed by the Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (ASDC) at NASA’s Langley Research Center. Available MOPITT data products include Level 1 radiances and Level 2 derived carbon monoxide total column and mixing ratio profiles at a horizontal resolution of about 22 km at nadir and a vertical resolution of about 4 km. The ASDC also makes available tools that aid in the visualization and analysis of the MOPITT Level 2 data products. The MOPITT L2 Viewer software package plots images from the MOPITT Level 2 data files. Sample read software extracts data from a MOPITT Level 2 HDF-EOS formatted file and outputs the data in ASCII. The software also allows subsetting by latitude and longitude. Detailed information about the MOPITT data products, tools and documentation is available from the ASDC web site.
Hunt, L. A., and N. A. Ritchey (2004a), MOPITT Data and Tools Available from the Atmospheric Sciences Data Center, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, B3.
The Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) data products are archived and distributed by the Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (ASDC) at NASA’s Langley Research Center. Available MOPITT data products include Level 1 radiances and Level 2 derived carbon monoxide. The ASDC also provides access to tools that aid in the visualization and analysis of the MOPITT Level 2 data products. The MOPITT L2 Viewer software package plots images from the MOPITT Level 2 data files. Sample read software extracts data from a MOPITT Level 2 HDF-EOS formatted file and outputs the data in ASCII. The software also allows subsetting by latitude and longitude. Detailed information about the MOPITT data products, tools and documentation are available from the ASDC web site, http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov.
Hunt, L. A., and N. A. Ritchey (2004b), Simultaneous Earth views from CERES, MISR and MOPITT, vol. 7, pp. 4523–4526 vol.7.
The ultimate goal of NASA’s Terra mission is to unravel the mysteries of climate and environmental change. The instruments on board the Terra spacecraft are collecting global data sets needed to study the interrelationships inherent in the Earth’s coupled atmosphere-land-ocean-biosphere system. Issues such as the Earth’s energy balance, global cloudiness, the effects of atmospheric aerosols, and the impact of trace gases on climate can be addressed with simultaneous data from instruments such as the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES), the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT). An important feature of the experiments onboard Terra is the ability to obtain data from multiple instruments viewing the same phenomena. CERES, MISR and MOPITT data available from the Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (ASDC) at NASA’s Langley Research Center are used to demonstrate various complementary views of the Earth system. Examples are given of spatially and temporally coincident data covering phenomena such as aerosol concentrations from dust storms, and carbon monoxide and smoke associated with fires. CERES uses broadband radiometric measurements in three channels to provide both solar-reflected and Earth-emitted radiation throughout the atmosphere and, in combination with simultaneous measurements from instruments such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), provides new information on cloud properties. MISR obtains precisely calibrated images taken simultaneously at nine different angles and four wavelengths (blue, green, red and near-infrared) to provide data related to aerosols, clouds, and the Earth’s surface. MOPITT is a scanning radiometer designed to measure tropospheric profiles and total column amount of carbon monoxide on both the day and night portions of an orbit. Information about the available CERES, MISR and MOPITT data products, and how to obtain them can be f- ound at the ASDC web site: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov
Hyer, E. J., E. S. Kasischke, and D. J. Allen (2004a), Applying Atmospheric Measurements to Constrain Parameters of Terrestrial Source Models, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A94.
Quantitative inversions of atmospheric measurements have been widely applied to constrain atmospheric budgets of a range of trace gases. Experiments of this type have revealed persistent discrepancies between “bottom-up” and “top-down” estimates of source magnitudes. The most common atmospheric inversion uses the absolute magnitude as the sole parameter for each source, and returns the optimal value of that parameter. In order for atmospheric measurements to be useful for improving “bottom-up” models of terrestrial sources, information about other properties of the sources must be extracted. As the density and quality of atmospheric trace gas measurements improve, examination of higher-order properties of trace gas sources should become possible. Our model of boreal forest fire emissions is parameterized to permit flexible examination of the key uncertainties in this source. Using output from this model together with the UM CTM, we examined the sensitivity of CO concentration measurements made by the MOPITT instrument to various uncertainties in the boreal source: geographic distribution of burned area, fire type (crown fires vs. surface fires), and fuel consumption in above-ground and ground-layer fuels. Our results indicate that carefully designed inversion experiments have the potential to help constrain not only the absolute magnitudes of terrestrial sources, but also the key uncertainties associated with “bottom-up” estimates of those sources.
Hyer, E. J., E. S. Kasischke, and D. J. Allen (2004b), Using MOPITT Data to Improve Temporal Profiles of Boreal Forest Fire Emissions, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, C6.
Broad-scale modeling of how terrestrial sources affect the atmospheric trace gas composition has largely been limited to coarse-resolution analyses of background air. In the case of boreal forest fires, emissions are extremely localized in space and time, and aggregating to coarse spatial resolutions and monthly time scales results in a great loss of information for atmospheric studies. Emissions estimates in the literature have largely relied on three different methods for estimating temporal profiles of fire activity: reported data from fire management agencies, satellite detections of thermal hot spots, and satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth. We used MOPITT data together with a highly resolved emissions model and the Goddard/UM CTM to compare these methods. We found that while the biases of using reported data are more or less as expected due to delays in reporting, the inaccuracies of the other methods are more complex, and more difficult to account for. We found that while hot spot based methods generally perform better than aerosol-based methods at fine temporal scales, these methods are can be complementary in certain cases.
Jones, D. B., R. N. Hoffman, C. L. Heald, T. Nehrkorn, D. J. Jacob, O. Wild, M. Cerniglia, I. Bey, and R. M. Yantosca (2004), Characterizing Model Errors for Inverse Modelling of Atmospheric Trace Gases, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, F7.
Inverse modelling has become a powerful tool for improving estimates of surface fluxes of environmentally important trace gases. However, the a posteriori flux estimates depend critically on properly characterizing forward model errors, which are typically specified on an ad hoc basis. We present a new approach for quantifying model error for the inverse modelling of CO based on the ”NMC method,” which has not previously been applied to the inverse modelling of atmospheric trace constituents. The model error for the GEOS-CHEM simulation of CO is estimated using the differences between successive chemical forecasts of CO (48-hours vs. 24-hours), generated during February-March, 2001. We examine the dependence of the error correlation structure on region and local meteorology. We determine the consistency of the error statistics from the NMC method with those calculated by comparison of the CO simulation from GEOS-CHEM with that from the UCI/FRSGC model, and those based on the differences between GEOS-CHEM and observations of CO from MOPITT.
Jounot, L., J. Drummond, D. Dufour, O. Mikhailov, R. Irvine, J. Gero, R. Deschambault, and J. Taylor (2004), Airborne Measurements of CO by MOPITT-A, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, B4.
MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution In The Troposphere) is a carbon monoxide and methane remote sounder launched in 1999 on the Terra spacecraft. An aircraft version of MOPITT (MOPITT-A) has been developed at the University of Toronto to perform validation of MOPITT radiances as well as small scale pollution studies. MOPITT-A is based on the engineering model of MOPITT, modified for flight in NASA’s ER-2 research aircraft. In August and September 2000, it participated in the SAFARI 2000 field campaign in South Africa, monitoring CO emissions from biomass burning. This talk will describe the method used to retrieve carbon monoxide concentrations from longwave channel radiances. Special attention will be paid to the September 7th 2000 mission, the highlight of which was the overflight of a large prescribed fire in the vicinity of the Kruger National Park. MOPITT-A is financed by the Canadian Space Agency and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council.
Kampe, T. U., and I. N. Sokolik (2004), Implications of Spatial and Temporal Sampling on CO and Aerosol Fields Retrieved From Satellite-Borne Sensors, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, A5.
Carbon monoxide, mineral dust and carbonaceous aerosols are central to many problems in the atmospheric sciences, ranging from atmospheric chemistry and air pollution to climate change. It is critical to understand the sources and transport of CO and aerosols if their diverse impacts are to be reliably predicted. Satellite remote sensing offers a unique tool to address these issues, by providing information on the spatial and temporal distribution of CO and aerosols on regional and global scales. This study presents the results of our ongoing work towards finding and exploiting synergy between CO and aerosols retrieved from multi-satellite, multi-sensor data. The goals have been to 1) investigate whether the collocated CO and aerosol optical depth fields retrieved from satellites can provide additional constraints on sources, lifetime and transport routes of these species, and 2) to determine how the correlation between retrieved CO and aerosol fields are influenced by the spatial and temporal sampling, and the inherent spatial averaging that occurs, as provided by satellite remote sensing instruments. Collocated fields of CO derived from MOPITT measurements and aerosol optical depth (from MODIS and TOMS), were analyzed for several recent biomass burning events and Asian and Saharan dust outbreaks. The results of correlation analysis will be presented and implications for data assimilation by chemical transport model will be addressed.
Kar, J., and T. M. Team (2004), Evidence of transport processes in the carbon monoxide(CO) data from the measurement of pollution in the troposphere, vol. 35, edited by J.-P. Paillé, p. 3205.
MOPITT was launched aboard the Terra spacecraft in December 1999 into a sun synchronous orbit at 705 km and has been retrieving vertical profiles of CO globally since March 2000. The retrievals have been validated by comparison with in-situ aircraft measurements through a regular program as well through special field campaigns. In this paper we examine the role of CO as a tracer of transport using MOPITT data. The problem of limited vertical resolution of MOPITT retrievals is alleviated to a certain extent by the large number of profiles at any place. Case studies showing signatures of convection and Stratosphere-Troposphere Transport (STE) in the MOPITT CO data will be presented with supporting evidence from back trajectories, potential vorticity and ozonesonde data. The zonal mean height latitude cross sections of CO for various months indicate convective transport from biomass burning in the southern tropics during September-November period. Further, the boundary between the polluted northern hemisphere and relatively clean southern hemisphere shows a seasonal migration in latitude that has similarities with the migration of the inter tropical convergence zone. Possible signatures of the downward branch of the Hadley cell could also be seen in the northern hemisphere.
Kar, J., H. Bremer, J. R. Drummond, F. Nichitiu, J. Zou, J. Liu, Y. Rochon, J. C. Gille, M. N. Deeter, G. Francis, D. Ziskin, and J. Warner (2004), CO as a Precursor of Ozone and a Tracer of Transport: Evidence from MOPITT Data, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, C3.
Carbon Monoxide(CO) retrievals from MOPITT are used to explore two facets of CO in the troposphere, namely its role as a precursor of ozone in the biomass burning areas of the southern tropics and as a tracer of transport phenomena. The correlation with ozone is studied at 6 ozonesonde stations: Reunion, Irene, Natal, Ascension, San Cristobal and Paramaribo. Three year climatologies (March 2000-March 2003) of CO indicate distinct seasonal patterns at each station. All stations show enhanced CO levels during September-November period reflecting the austral burning with additional signatures of burning in Northern Africa and Northern Amazonia at some stations. The aerosol optical depths retrieved contemporaneously from MODIS show generally similar variations as CO with some notable anomalies. Tropospheric ozone from the sondes shows a generally good correlation with CO at most stations, but shows several instances of ozone enhancements uncorrelated to CO. This might help delineate the reasons for ozone variations in the southern tropics. At San Cristobal strong CO enhancements during March-April are not accompanied by any significant change in ozone. The potential of MOPITT CO measurements as tracers of convection and stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) events is also examined. The problem of limited vertical resolution of MOPITT retrievals is alleviated to a certain extent by the large number of profiles at any place. Case studies showing signatures of convection and STE in the MOPITT CO data will be presented.
Kawa, S. R., and H. Bian (2004), CO2 and CO simulations and their source signature indicated by CO/CO2, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A92.
Three years (2000-2002) atmospheric CO2 and CO fields are simulated by a Chemistry Transport Model driven by the assimilated meteorological fields from GEOS_4. The simulated CO2 and CO are evaluated by measurements from surface (CMDL), satellite (MOPITT/CO), and aircraft. The model-observation comparisons indicate reasonable agreement in both source and remote regions, and in the lower and upper troposphere. The simulation also captures the seasonality of CO2 and CO variations. The ratios of CO/CO2 are analyzed over different representative regions to identify the source signature, since the anthropogenic CO comes from the same combustion processes as CO2. This work enables us to improve satellite inversion estimates of CO2 sources and sinks by simultaneously using satellite CO measurement.
Kendall, D. (2004), New Missions and Plans in Atmospheric Remote Sensing - The Canadian Space Agency’s Perspective, vol. 35, edited by J.-P. Paillé, p. 4597.
The Canadian Space Agency has, over the past decade, identified the field of atmospheric remote sensing from space as one of the primary areas of research to be supported by the Agency. This policy has led to successes such as WINDII, MOPITT, OSIRIS and SciSat-1. Recently, this area of research has been further supported by the new Canadian Space Strategy that places Earth Observation, including atmospheric remote sensing, as the first of the core thrusts to be followed by the CSA over the next decade. Although successful as a field of primarily pure scientific enquiry, one of the challenges that Canada (and others) is facing is the need to balance the scientific imperative with operational requirements of government agencies, and with the direction that the GEO process will be taking the international community. Both of these challenges reflect the need to develop information that leads to sound policy decisions rather than knowledge for its own sake. During this presentation, the speaker will describe some of the instruments and missions developed recently by Canada as well as provide a description of some of the new projects in atmospheric remote sensing that are currently being developed by the Canadian scientific community for flight opportunity in the coming five to ten years within the context noted above.
Kim, J., S. H. Choi, H. K. Cho, S. H. Lee, D. P. Edwards, H. C. Lee, H. S. Lim, and G. H. Choi (2004a), Aerosol and CO loading in the atmosphere observed by the MODIS and MOPITT: Russian forest fire case, vol. 5652, edited by & M.-H. A. S. C. Tsay, T. Yokota, pp. 263–269. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.578903.
The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides aerosol optical depth (AOD) along with the fine mode fraction over ocean and darker land surfaces. Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) onboard the Terra satellite provides quantitative information of carbon monoxide (CO). Measurements of CO whose principal sources arise from anthropogenic emissions such as biomass burning and forest fires, is very useful for tracing fire emissions in the atmosphere. In this study, intense fires in the southeast part of Russia in May, 2003 are studied with the satellite data from MODIS and MOPITT. The AOD distribution from the MODIS for May, 2003 show stretched regions of high AODs near the Korean Peninsula. The CO concentrations at 700 hPa from the MOPITT for May, 2003 also show enhanced values. Correlation between CO and AOD are investigated for the forest fire case. This multi-instrumental approach to monitor the aerosol in the atmosphere is expected to contribute to the classification of the aerosol characteristics in the atmosphere, carbonaceous aerosol in particular.
Kim, J., S. H. Choi, D. Edwards, H. C. Lee, H. K. Cho, and S. H. Lee (2004b), Correlation Between Aerosol Optical Depth and CO in the Atmosphere for the Forest Fire Events, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C72.
The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides global observation of aerosol onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. The satellite data on AOD have been used extensively in the detection, aerosol loading estimation and movement tracking of the yellow sand events. Furthermore, the MODIS provides AOD with the fine mode fraction over ocean and darker land surfaces, but still have limitations to distinguish carbonaceous and sulfate aerosol. Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere(MOPITT) onboard the Terra satellite provides quantitative information of carbon monoxide(CO). Measurements of CO whose principal sources arise from anthropogenic emissions such as biomass burning and forest fires, is very useful for tracing fire emissions in the atmosphere. In this study, the satellite data from MODIS and MOPITT were used to analyze correlation between AOD and CO density for the intense fires in the southeast part of Russia in May, 2003, which have affected quality of atmospheric environment over Korea significantly. The AOD distribution from the MODIS for May, 2003 show movement of high AOD regions near the Korean Peninsula. The CO column densities from the MOPITT also show enhanced values for May, 2003. Reasonably good pattern correlation between CO and AOD are found over the source region of forest fire in particular. This multi-instrumental approach to monitor the aerosol in the atmosphere is expected to contribute to the classification of the aerosol characteristics in the atmosphere, carbonaceous aerosol in particular. Furthermore, as the lifetime of CO is long compared to that of aerosol in the atmosphere, the ratio of AOD to CO can be used to trace the emission source and sink regions in the atmosphere. This ratio is expected to be larger near the source region and smaller near the sink, because the aerosol is deposited to the ground leaving the CO in the atmosphere. These results are compared with the backward trajectory analysis by the HYSPLITT model of NOAA.
Lee, K. H., J. E. Kim, Y. J. Kim, J. Kim, and W. von Hoyningen-Huene (2004), Satellite remote sensing of boreal forest fires over Northeast Asia during May 2003, vol. 5652, edited by & M.-H. A. S. C. Tsay, T. Yokota, pp. 270–278. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.580775.
Massive smoke plume from forest fires reduced visibility on regional scale in Northeast Asia in May 2003 during boreal forest fire season in Siberia. Smoke aerosol events and their effects are investigated using satellite data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS), Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES), and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) over Northeast Asia. Extensive forest fires were detected from MODIS fire product (MOD14) data over Siberia. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) of the smoke aerosol from fires can be retrieved from the MODIS Level 1 data by using the Bremen Aerosol Retrieval (BAER) algorithm. The retrieved mean AOT ranged from 2 to 4 over smoke plume covering Northeast Asia. Over most of the Northeast Asia, CO concentrations was about 3.0 molecules/cm2 in this region. The top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave aerosol radiative forcing (SWARF) from CERES has been estimated. The mean TOA SWARF was about 130∼290 W/m2 over smoke aerosol plume, indicating an aerosol cooling effect.
Liu, J., J. Durmmond, Z. Cao, J. Zou, H. Bremer, J. Kar, F. Nichitiu, and J. Gille (2004), MOPITT Observation of Large Horizontal Gradients of CO at the Synoptic Scale, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, B2.
Carbon monoxide (CO) generated from incomplete combustion of fossil fuel is one of the major pollutants in the atmosphere. The MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) instrument, on board the Terra satellite is now measuring this atmospheric gas from space for the first time. With the MOPITT CO data, a phenomenon of large horizontal gradients of CO at the synoptic scale was observed. The horizontal concentration of CO varied rapidly by 50-100% in ∼100 km across a noticeable boundary. This phenomenon lasted one to several days and spanned horizontally 500 -1000 km, appearing at almost all heights of CO retrievals from 850 mb to 250 mb. In comparison with the corresponding NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis meteorological data, we found that over land this phenomenon often correlates with a shift in the vertical wind direction on the two sides of the boundary. The boundary is mostly aligned with the transition between downward and upward airflows, with ascending air motion correlating with high CO on one side and descending motion with low CO on the other side. The shift in the vertical wind direction is usually associated with synoptic weather processes, such as frontal systems. Over oceans, the phenomenon appears to be related to horizontal wind shear. In addition to case studies, we will also discuss the significance of these new findings in understanding the mechanisms of air pollutant transport and modeling of their spatial distribution patterns.
Menard, R., A. Robichaud, and J. Kaminski (2004), Assimilation of MOPITT observations using GEM-AQ, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, A4.
The Meteorological Service of Canada is developing a Chemical Weather Prediction and Monitoring system based on the operational meteorological model GEM coupled online with a tropospheric chemical model used for air quality prediction ; GEM-AQ. The assimilation is conducting using a 3D Var scheme with the addition a bias correction scheme to estimate systematic errors due to misspecifications of the chemical sources. The bias correction scheme is at variance with the proposed scheme by Dee and daSilva (1998) as it contains explicit cross-covariance error statistics. Issues about observability of chemical sources and the use of innovation error covariance statistics to adjust covariance parameters will be discussed in detail.
Morris, K. L. (2004), Aerosol, Gases, and Cloud Data Sets Available for Research in Urban, Regional, and Global Scale Environments (2004 - 6ATCHEM), American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St. Boston MA 02108-3693 USA. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/18030603/13D6CD9A7AC654112B3/54?accountid=28174 .
The Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley Research Center archives data from several projects that can be used for studying aerosols, gases, and clouds in urban, regional and global scale environments. Sample measurements from four data products will be shown for the region surrounding Hong Kong. Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) data products contain aerosol and cloud measurements from regional and global scale environments. The spatial resolution is 20 kilometers at nadir for the Terra and Aqua satellites. Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) data products contain aerosol and cloud measurements from regional and global scale environments. MISR data are collected using nine cameras, at four different angles and four wavelengths (red, blue, green, near-infrared). The spatial resolution is from 275 to 1100 meters. Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) data products contain profiles of carbon monoxide and total column methane measurements for a global scale environment. The spatial resolution is 22 km horizontally and 4 km vertically. The swath width is approximately 640km. Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) data products contain measurements of many gases from urban and regional environments. The spatial resolution varies for each field campaign. Data from the TRACE-P field campaign will be highlighted. All of these data are available from the NASA Langley ASDC at http://eosweb.nasa.gov.
Muller, J., and J. Stavrakou (2004a), Inverting for Emissions of Ozone Precursors Using the Adjoint of a CTM, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A88.
In order to optimise the emissions of ozone precursors (CO, NOx, hydrocarbons) in the IMAGES global chemical transport model, we apply the adjoint technique. Misfits between modelled and measured concentrations are quantified by introducing the cost function and looking for a solution that corresponds to its minimum. The minimum of the cost function is calculated via an iterative procedure that makes use of the adjoint model operator, that is, the gradient of the cost function with respect to a set of control parameters to be optimised. The advantage of the adjoint model technique compared to other inversion methods is that no linear response of the calculated concentrations to changes in the emissions is assumed. Furthermore, the emissions of several chemical compounds can be varied and optimised simultaneously and the chemical feedbacks existing between different chemical compounds can be explicitly taken into account. These features are very important for compounds like CO and NOx which have common emission sources (like biomass burning), and are strongly inter-related through the chemistry of the OH radical. In the present study, the control parameters to be optimised are the annual emissions of CO, NOx and a few NMVOCs (ethane, propane and acetone) over large regions and for different broad categories. Making use of an emission inventory based on EDGAR 3 and GEIA, we present the results for emission optimisations performed using different combinations of the following observational datasets considered for the same year: ground-based measurements of CO and NMVOCs, MOPITT-derived CO columns, GOME-derived NO2 tropospheric columns, and aircraft measurements of several NMVOCs. Finally, the a posteriori concentrations are compared to independent observations provided by aircraft campaigns.
Muller, J. J., and J. Stavrakou (2004b), Chemical Feedbacks in Inverse Modelling of Emissions Using the Adjoint of a CTM, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, A1.
In order to optimise the emissions of ozone precursors (CO, NOx, hydrocarbons) in the IMAGES global chemical transport model, we apply the adjoint technique. Misfits between modelled and measured concentrations are quantified by introducing the cost function and looking for a solution that corresponds to its minimum. The minimum of the cost function is calculated via an iterative procedure that makes use of the adjoint model operator, that is, the gradient of the cost function with respect to a set of control parameters to be optimised. The advantage of the adjoint model technique compared to other inversion methods is that no linear response of the calculated concentrations to changes in the emissions is assumed. Furthermore, the emissions of several chemical compounds can be varied and optimised simultaneously and the chemical feedbacks existing between different chemical compounds can be explicitly taken into account. These features are very important for compounds like CO and NOx which have common emission sources (like biomass burning), and are strongly inter-related through the chemistry of the OH radical. In the present study, the control parameters to be optimised are the annual emissions of CO, NOx and a few NMVOCs over large regions and for different broad categories. Making use of the emission inventories for the year 2001, we present the results for emission optimisations performed using different combinations of the following observational datasets considered for the same year: ground-based (NOAA/CMDL) measurements of CO concentrations, MOPITT-derived distribution of CO (total or partial) columns, and GOME-derived distributions of NO2 tropospheric columns. Finally, optimised concentrations will be compared to independent observations provided by aircraft campaigns.
Nichitiu, F., J. R. Drummond, J. Zou, and R. Deschambault (2004), Solar Particle Events Seen by the MOPITT Instrument, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, A9.
The MOPITT instrument was launched on the Terra satellite on the 18th December 1999 to measure primary CO and CH4. However, from the MOPITT telemetry data, it is also possible to extract interesting information on other, very different, geophysical quantities. This paper reports on Device Single Events (DSEs) occurring in an accelerometer within the instrument, and their correlation with high-energy radiation environment and solar activity. During the period from March 2000 to Jan 2003 more than 1000 accelerometer outliers were recorded, a large enough set to apply a statistically meaningful analysis. The strong localization of these events in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) indicate that these outliers are caused by the radiation environment (energetic particles), but strong signals from the polar regions, particularly the southern pole, occur during intense Solar Proton Events (SPSs). Analysis of these signals shows a direct correlation of the DSE daily rate with solar activity, a Day/Night asymmetry caused probably by interaction of trapped particles with the neutral atmosphere, and a direct correlation with high intensity solar proton events (SPEs). We have also found: 1) A direct correlation of the particle population responsible for DSEs in the piezoelectric accelerometer with solar activity as expressed by the F10.7 Solar Radio Flux but not by the Sun Spot Number (SSN). 2) The second sub-maximum of Solar Cycle SC23 is characterized by injection of more high-energy particles mainly via the poles, and a good proxy of Solar activity for this purpose is the F10.7 index. A preliminary analysis of DSEs collected during 2003, included the big Solar Event from 29 Oct/2003, is also presented.
Penner, J. E., S. Zhang, and A. Ito (2004), Estimates of Black Carbon Emissions from Open Biomass Burning, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B1.
Emissions from biomass burning may have significant climate effects through their direct and indirect climate forcing. We have used the TOMs AI product together with an inverse model to estimate black carbon emissions from open biomass burning for the year 2000. We used the University of Michigan version of the LLNL IMPACT global transport model together with the GSFC Data Assimilation Office meteorological fields for the year 2000, the assumed aerosol size distributions and the satellite viewing angle to estimate the modeled AI and then we minimized the cost function between measured and modeled AI to estimate emissions from 9 different regions. A priori emissions based on both Ito and Penner [2004] and Arellano et al. [2004] were used. Emissions estimates from Africa are well constrained by the inversion method, but those from S. America, Indonesia, S. Asia, Australia, temperate boreal forests, and the rest of the world depend significantly on the a priori emissions as well as the error estimates that are used in the analysis. Our best-fit a posteriori emissions are 4.72 Tg/year, almost a factor of 3 larger than the bottom up estimates of Ito and Penner [2004]. The importance of these large estimates for climate forcing is discussed. Arellano, A. F., Jr., P. S. Kasibhatla, L. Giglio, G. R. van der Werf, and J. T. Randerson (2004), Top-down estimates of global CO sources using MOPITT measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L01104, doi:10.1029/2003GL018609. Ito, A., and J. E. Penner (2004), Global estimates of biomass burning emissions based on satellite imagery for the year 2000, J. Geophys. Res, 109, D14S05, doi:10.1029/2003JD004423.
Pfister, G., G. Petron, L. K. Emmons, J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, J. Lamarque, J. Attie, C. Granier, and J. R. Drummond (2004), Simulating CO Concentrations over Europe: Evaluation and Budget Study, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, A1.
CO in an indicator for the transport of pollutants in the troposphere on a global and regional scale. The first global and vertically resolved measurements of atmospheric CO have been provided by the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) remote-sensing instrument on board the Terra satellite. MOPITT CO data from the first year of operation (March 2000 to March 2001) have been employed in an inversion scheme to optimize the CO surface emissions in the global chemistry transport model MOZART-2. For evaluating the simulations we compare the modeled CO fields with MOPITT data, and also with independent aircraft and ground-based in-situ measurements of CO. The comparison indicates that (1) the agreement typically improves by using the optimized emissions, and (2) the model concentrations represent the background conditions and large scale transport over Europe relatively well, and, therefore, are suited for the budget studies we conducted. To diagnose the contributions of different processes and source regions on the CO load over Europe we tagged the CO molecules in the model according to the emission type and the source region. The results of this analysis indicate to which extent expected source changes might impact the European CO field.
Schrijver, H., A. Maurellis, A. Gloudemans, A. G. Straume, J. Delaat, S. Houweling, Q. Kleipool, G. Lichtenberg, R. Hees, and I. Aben (2004), Greenhouse (related) gases CO, CH4 and CO2 : first results on global distribution, seasonal variation and pollution events detected by SCIAMACHY, vol. 35, edited by J.-P. Paillé, p. 2151.
The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY) has been measuring earth-scattered light from the atmosphere in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared (240–1750 nm, 1940-2040 nm, 2265-2380 nm). We present here new CO, CH4 and CO2 data products derived from the near-infrared channels. Although the near-infrared retrievals have faced complicating factors due to the presence of an unexpected ice layer on the detectors, its effects have been lessened by applying dedicated in-flight decontamination procedures and additional in-flight calibration measurements (Lichtenberg et al. this meeting), as well as ongoing in-house improvements to the calibration. Our CO, CH4 and CO2 total columns are currently in the process of being comprehensively validated through in-house retrieval intercomparisons, ground-based validation, comparison with chemical transport models (TM3/5 and GeosChem), and comparison with other satellite instruments most notably MOPITT. Although most results are still very preliminary and under validation, there is clear evidence that SCIAMACHY is sensitive to the distribution of lower tropospheric CO, CH4 and CO2. Such evidence is provided by observed latitudinal gradients and seasonal variations, as well as the detection of plumes from biomass-burning events.
Wiacek, A., J. R. Taylor, K. Strong, J. Liu, H. Bremer, and J. R. Drummond (2004), Total Columns and Vertical Profiles of Carbon Monoxide Measured Over Toronto Using a Ground-Based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) Spectrometer: Comparisons With Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) Data (Jan 2002 - Sep 2003), AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, B7.
A high-resolution Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer is the primary instrument at the University of Toronto Atmospheric Observatory (TAO), established in 2001. Continuous measurements of solar absorption spectra using narrow band optical filters began in October 2001 for the purpose of building a long-term data set of key species related to climate change and mid-latitude atmospheric chemistry, and for the validation of satellite instruments. Measurements have greater temporal coverage in the summer and fall months due to favourable weather conditions. Total columns and low-resolution vertical profiles of carbon monoxide have been derived from the high-resolution (0.004 cm-1) solar absorption spectra recorded at TAO using lines in the (1-0) transition region near 4.7 μ m. Microwindows were chosen to approximately match Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) averaging kernels and spectra were analyzed using the SFIT-2 optimal estimation method retrieval algorithm (developed at NASA Langley Research Centre, USA, and National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), New Zealand.) Monochromatic transmittances were calculated in the forward model assuming a Voigt line shape and using the HITRAN 2000+ spectral database, NCEP temperature and pressure profiles as well as volume mixing ratio a priori information for CO and interfering species. The averaging kernels of both observation platforms have been considered in the analysis. Comparisons between ground-based solar absorption FTIR and MOPITT total columns and vertical profiles will be presented.
Yudin, V., J. Gille, L. Lyjak, G. Petron, J.-F. Lamarque, B. Khattatov, D. Edwards, M. Deeter, and L. Emmons (2004a), Satellite perspectives of the global data analysis of pollution: carbon monoxide retrievals from MOPITT, vol. 35, edited by J.-P. Paillé, p. 3542.
We discuss the data analysis of the first multi-year measurements of the pollution in the troposphere made by the MOPITT instrument onboard the TERRA satellite. The MOPITT carbon monoxide retrieval algorithm has been evaluated using the simulator tools, and correlative measurements. Our results predict the positive bias in the operational retrievals of CO between the surface and 700 hPa. The optimal use of the MOPITT radiances in the data assimilation procedure can be one possible way to overcome this bias in the retrievals related with the single prior information. The model biases and errors in the CO distributions forecasted by the CTM have been evaluated by comparison with in situ CO measurements and MOPITT retrievals. Along with the transport, and chemical model errors, these comparisons predict the poor knowledge of the seasonal and interannual variations in the CO emissions. The assimilation of the MOPITT CO data with the optimized CO surface fluxes improves substantially the agreement between our analysis and independent CO measurements. The year-to-year global and regional changes in the budget of CO and its emissions will be discussed.
Yudin, V. A., G. Petron, J. Lamarque, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, L. V. Lyjak, P. G. Hess, L. K. Emmons, and M. N. Deeter (2004b), Constraining Global and Regional Budgets of CO From MOPITT Retrievals, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B8.
The MOPITT instrument onboard the NASA TERRA satellite provides the first multi-year CO retrievals that have been recently used for development and evaluation of tracer assimilation schemes and inverse modeling of surface emissions. In this paper we review our recent results for the CO data assimilation and inversion of CO surface fluxes using the CMDL surface data and mid-troposphere MOPITT CO retrievals in the MOZART CTM. We will discuss applications of various assimilation/inversion schemes, including the specification of the CTM errors, evaluation of potential retrieval and forecast biases, and assignement of prior emission errors. The estimated 2000-2004 year-to-year variations of the monthly CO emissions on the global and regional scales will be highlighted.
Yurganov, L., T. Blumenstock, D. Edwards, E. Grechko, F. Hase, I. Kramer, E. Mahieu, J. Mellkvist, P. Novelli, H. Scheel, A. Strandberg, R. Sussmann, H. Tanimoto, R. Zander, J. Gille, and J. R. Drummond (2004a), Increased Northern Hemispheric Tropospheric CO Burden in 2002 And 2003 Detected From the Ground and From a Satellite, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, B1.
Carbon monoxide total column amounts in the atmosphere have been measured between January 2002 and December 2003 in the High Northern Hemisphere (30°-90° N, HNH) using infrared spectrometers of high and moderate resolutions. They were compared to the mixing ratios measured in the surface layer and to the total column amounts measured by the Terra/MOPITT instrument. All the data reveal increased CO abundances in comparison with other years. Maximum anomalies (deviations from the ”normal” monthly means, averaged over 2000- 2001 or over 1996 - 2001) were observed in October 2002 and August 2003. Nonetheless, these enhancements were twice as little comparing to the record high CO anomaly in October 1998. Most likely, CO emissions from the strong boreal forest fires in Russia and in Canada induced increasing CO burdens.
Yurganov, L. N., A. V. Dzhola, E. I. Grechko, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, and J. R. Drummond (2004b), Measurements of CO Tropospheric Burden From the Ground and From a Satellite: Error Analysis, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, A3.
Spectroscopic measurements in 2002 and 2003 at Zvenigorod (located in 60 km from Moscow, Russia) reveal abnormally high CO total column amounts comparing to other years. Especially high, even record, CO column amounts were observed in September 2002. A comparison to other sites in the northern hemisphere allows one to treat this event as a regional pollution connected with strong peat fires around Moscow. CO surface layer concentrations measured in Moscow city were also unusually high. Increased CO column amounts at the same region were detected by the MOPITT/Terra instrument as well; however, the absolute values were much less, then those measured by the ground-based spectrometer. CO anomalies (i.e., the deviations from the ”normal” monthly means, determined as averages over 2000- 2001) were also different for the MOPITT and for the spectrometer. An underestimation of the CO boundary layer contribution in the total column that is inherent to the MOPITT methodology may explain this difference. The ground-based network of the spectroscopic stations is free of this error, but it is very sparse and almost lacking in the source regions. The report focuses on estimating an error in the hemispheric CO burden (total CO mass in the troposphere) measured using the existing ground-based and satellite-based instruments.

2003

Allen, D. J., K. Pickering, and M. Fox-Rabinovitz (2003), Evaluation of pollutant outflow and CO sources during TRACE-P using model-calculated, aircraft-based, and MOPITT-derived CO concentrations, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B6.
Outflow of CO from Asia during March 2001 was evaluated using data from the TRACE-P mission and the MOPITT instrument in conjunction with model-calculated CO from the University of Maryland CTM. Comparison of model-calculated CO with aircraft measurements was encouraging. Temporal and spatial variations in CO were well captured (mean correlation coefficient of 0.78); however, model-calculated mixing ratios were lower than observed especially below 850 hPa where negative biases of ∼60 ppbv were seen. ”Non-standard” aerosol effects explain a portion of the negative biases. Below 300 hPa, biases between model-calculated and observed CO distributions were reduced by 6-9 ppbv when OH concentrations were adjusted to take into the account the effect of aerosols on photolysis- and reaction-rates. Inverse modeling of CO was used to estimate the corrections to Asian CO emissions suggested by the combination of model simulations and aircraft measurements in the TRACE-P region. Resulting Asian correction factors were 1.70 +/- 0.36 for fossil fuel/biofuel (ff/bf) emissions and 1.00 +/- 0.30 for bb emissions. Resulting ff/bf emissions were 29.6 +/- 6.2 Tg for March 2001 (323 +/- 67 Tg for an entire year). Resulting bb emissions for March 2001 were 18.1 +/- 5.4 Tg. Comparison of model-calculated CO with MOPITT measurements supported the results from our inverse modeling study. Without exception, mean March 2001 model-calculated CO profiles in the TRACE-P region from a simulation with adjusted CO sources were within a standard deviation of mean March 2001 MOPITT-sampled profiles. Finally, sampling biases need to be considered when interpreting low-latitude MOPITT profiles
Arellano, A. F., P. S. Kasibhatla, and L. Giglio (2003), Recent top-down estimates of global sources of carbon monoxide, p. 7369.
A spatially and temporally robust estimate of the sources of carbon monoxide (CO) is necessary to improve our understanding of tropospheric chemical composition. We present here our synthesis inversion results on CO emission estimates for the year 2000 using NOAA CMDL CO observations and MOPITT derived CO mixing ratios with TRMM VIRS and GBA2000 satellite fire products used as proxies for biomass burning emissions. We compare our results to several regional to global bottom-up and top-down estimates in the past decade. The focus in particular will be on spatially disaggregated anthropogenic sources that are reasonably resolved by present observations. The inverse procedure follows a bayesian approach in estimating a set of scaling factors for these sources that produces the best match of the observations and the modeled CO concentrations, calculated here using GEOS-CHEM chemical transport model. The identifiability of these sources in the inversion is evaluated by detailed a posteriori error analysis including an inspection of the averaging kernels and error patterns.
Barret, B., M. de Mazière, and E. Mahieu (2003), CO vertical profiles and columns retrieved from ground-based FTIR at the Jungfraujoch in comparison with in-situ surface and MOPITT data, p. 11647.
Carbon monoxide (CO) profiles have been retrieved from solar absorption FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red) spectra recorded at the Network for the Detection of stratospheric Changes (NDSC) station of the Jungfraujoch in the Swiss Alps (46.5° N, 8° E and 3580 m a.s.l.) for the period from January 1997 to May 2001. The quality of these profiles has been established by comparison with correlative measurements. The average volume mixing ratios (vmr) in the 3 km layer above the station have been compared with coincident in-situ surface measurement. The agreement between monthly mean data from both measurement techniques is excellent, with a correlation coefficient of 0.88. Since March 2000, the Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument onboard the Terra satellite is measuring CO total columns and height distributions. For the period from March 2000 to May 2001, the FTIR CO total columns have been compared to CO partial columns derived from MOPITT CO level 2 products. No significant biases were found between FTIR and MOPITT measurements.
Clerbaux, C., S. Turquety, and J. Hadji-Lazaro (2003), Progress in trace gas measurement from infrared satellite, p. 10921.
Satellite data currently represent the majority of the observations available to improve our understanding of tropospheric chemistry. Nadir-viewing instruments probing the troposphere using the thermal IR emission of Earth were launched on board of polar-orbiting satellites (IMG/ADEOS, MOPITT/TERRA), and several other remote sensors are planned to be launched in the coming years (e.g. TES/AURA, IASI/METOP). From the atmospheric spectra recorded by IR FTS instruments, global scale information on atmospheric contents of CO, O3, and CH4 may be retrieved. In order to maximize the scientific return to be expected from these missions, efforts are being dedicated towards the development of fast forward radiative codes, efficient inversion methods for the retrieval of trace gases, and data assimilation techniques in chemical models. This paper will present the results obtained from the analysis of atmospheric radiance spectra recorded by the IMG instrument. We will compare global fields of CO, O3, and CH4 measured for selected time periods with chemistry-transport model results, and discuss how future data could be used to constrain atmospheric models to improve our knowledge on distribution of ozone and its precursors.
Connors, V. S., H. G. Reichle, W. Morrow, J. Companion, M. Sandy, C. D. Hall, H. Wood, and R. J. Ribando (2003), The MicroMAPS Project: A NASA - Virginia Space Grant Consortium Initiative, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.
The MicroMAPS instrument is a nadir-viewing, gas filter correlation radiometer that operates in the 4.67-micrometer band of carbon monoxide. MicroMAPS was designed at North Carolina State University and built at Resonance Ltd in Canada for flight on the NASA-Clark spacecraft, under the Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative. Because of spacecraft-related delays, the Clark mission was cancelled in February 1998. The instrument was removed from the spacecraft in August 2000 and placed in storage at NASA Langley Research Center until the initiation of the current MicroMAPS project in 2002. The primary goal of the MicroMAPS mission is to examine the chemical and transport processes in the lower atmosphere. The scientific objectives are to 1) demonstrate the reliability and accuracy of the two-layer profiles and total column amounts of CO in the troposphere; 2) provide additional CO measurements and profiles to investigators who develop combined chemistry-transport models, data assimilation models, and other regional- to global-scale atmospheric models; and 3) complement the measurement matrix of space-based CO sensors such as MOPITT on the Terra and TES on the AURA spacecrafts. Test flights of the MicroMAPS CO remote sensor on the Proteus 281 aircraft (owned by Scaled Composites, Inc.) will enable the development and testing of data retrieval algorithms for this instrument, and the verification of these remote CO measurements through comparisons with CO profiles that are measured directly. The aerospace engineering student team from Virginia Polytechnic Institute completed the instrument system and the enclosure design in May 2002. The new composite enclosure replaces the nose of the starboard tail boom during MicroMAPS flights. The instrument system consists of MicroMAPS, an optical window, a data acquisition computer, environmental sensors, and a power inverter. The integrated instrument system, after testing at NASA Langley is completed, will be shipped to Scaled Composites, Inc. in Mojave, CA, to be integrated, calibrated, and flown on a series of test flights. These initial data sets will be used to test the prototype retrieval algorithms under development by the engineering student team at the University of Virginia. The MicroMAPS instrument system will fly on-board Proteus, as a non-interfering payload in collaboration with other integrated payloads.
Deeter, M. N., L. K. Emmons, J. C. Gille, and D. P. Edwards (2003), Vertical Resolution and Information Content of MOPITT CO Profiles, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.
The MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) remote sensing instrument was designed to monitor global distributions of carbon monoxide and methane from a space-based platform using gas correlation radiometry. MOPITT became operational in March, 2000 after being launched in late December, 1999. Current MOPITT retrievals of CO are based on a subset of the instrument’s eight 4.6 μ m-band channels. The sensitivity of the retrieved CO profile to the `true’ profile is expressed mathematically by the retrieval averaging kernels. Analysis of the averaging kernels reveals valuable information about (1) vertical resolution and (2) inclusion of a priori information. Calculated averaging kernels for operational retrieved CO profiles indicate the capability of resolving tropospheric CO into approximately two layers. Calculation of the averaging kernels’ eigenvectors and eigenvalues provides additional insights into issues of vertical resolution and information content. Instruments such as MOPITT that exploit thermal infrared radiation for trace gas profile retrievals are sensitive to temperature contrasts within the atmosphere and at the surface/atmosphere interface. Over land, retrieval vertical resolution (and information content) varies considerably between daytime and nighttime observations due to the diurnal variability of surface/atmosphere temperature contrasts. Over deserts, for example, resolution is usually much greater for daytime observations than for nighttime observations. Over the oceans, retrieval vertical resolution also follows patterns associated with skin temperature (with the highest resolution observed typically in tropical regions). Comparisons of the vertical gradient of MOPITT retrieved CO profiles with in-situ CO profiles measured using aircraft-based instruments are consistent with the vertical resolution indicated by the calculated averaging kernels. Similar findings apply to comparisons of MOPITT retrievals with output from the chemical transport model `MOZART.’ Thus, we find that from (1) averaging kernel calculations using operational retrievals, (2) comparisons with validation results based on in-situ measurements, and (3) comparisons with a chemical transport model that MOPITT retrievals contain quite useful information regarding the vertical distribution of carbon monoxide (in addition to its total column value).
Edwards, D. P., X. X. Tie, L. K. Emmons, S. J. Massie, J. C. Gille, Y. J. Kaufmann, and A. Chu (2003), A satellite comparison of tropospheric aerosol and trace gas distributions, p. 7943.
Satellite remote sensing offers the best opportunity of making global measurements of tropospheric aerosol and trace gases over extended periods of time. Recent developments in aerosol retrieval allow a distinction to be made between fine and coarse mode particles. The fine mode particles are produced predominantly by anthropgenic combustion processes such as the burning of fossil fuels in urban and industrial areas, the use of biofuels in developing countries, and by biomass burning in the tropics. These are the same processes that lead to the emission of carbon monoxide (CO) into the atmosphere, and this is one of the few tropospheric gases that can be successfully monitored from space. In this paper we use data from the MODIS and MOPITT instruments aboard the Terra satellite to examine the similarities and differences between the aerosol and CO distributions. With the aid of the MOZART-2 chemical transport model and satellite fire count data, we contrast the relative amounts of CO and aerosol from biomass burning emissions in the African savanna and from Amazonia. We also investigate the chemical origin and transport of aerosol and CO from Asian emissions with the aim of distinguishing contributions to the pollution outflow from industrial, biofuel, and biomass burning processes.
Emmons, L., J.-L. Attie, J. Gille, D. Edwards, P. Hess, J.-F. Lamarque, and P. Novelli (2003), Seasonal variation of Asian outflow from MOPITT CO and MOZART, p. 8020.
The MOPITT instrument on the EOS/Terra satellite is providing the first long-term global observations of carbon monoxide in the troposphere. This unique data set allows for the analysis of variation in CO distributions on various temporal and spatial scales from March 2000 to the present. This presentation focuses on the CO distribution from Asian outflow over the North Pacific, and how it varies with season due to changes in both emissions and transport. The validation of MOPITT CO with aircraft measurements in this region show only small biases in the MOPITT retrievals. The global model MOZART is used to analyze the relative contributions of different emission sources (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuels, from various regions) to Asian outflow using “tagged” CO tracers. Biomass burning in southeast Asia during spring is an important contributor to the high concentrations of CO seen in the central and eastern Pacific at that time.
Gille, J., V. Yudin, L. Lyjak, D. Edwards, L. Emmons, M. Deeter, G. Petron, B. Khattatov, and J. Lamarque (2003a), A Global Survey of the CO Emissions of Boreal Fires From MOPITT Data, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C7.
Retrievals of radiances obtained by the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument on the Terra spacecraft have yielded determinations of the global distribution of CO from March 2000 to the present. These data have been used to evaluate the contributions of Boreal fires to the CO background in the Northern Hemisphere. Time series of the CO concentrations in the lower and upper troposphere over the latitude band from 40° -70° N are used to show the seasonal cycle in CO mixing ratios, and the cycle in short-term variability, off the east coasts of Asia and North America. These show the largest CO concentrations in spring, as well as the strong variability of CO concentrations during episodic production from fires. The resulting CO is transported over intercontinental distances in timescales ranging upward from a week (in spring). The inter-annual variation of CO can be quantified for the 2000-2003 period. For March 2000-April 2001 the data will be compared with the results of assimilating CO retrievals into a chemistry-transport model. This illustrates the additional information that the assimilation can add at high latitudes, where the retrieved results are depend more strongly on the a priori information.
Gille, J., V. Yudin, L. Lyjak, L. Emmons, D. Edwards, D. Ziskin, J. Chen, and J. Drummond (2003b), Transports of Carbon Monoxide from North America to Europe based on MOPITT Observations, p. 14467.
The Measurement of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) experiment now flying on the EOS Terra space platform is providing the first measurements of vertically resolved profiles of carbon monoxide (CO) in the troposphere. Data have been obtained from March 2000 to the present, with a gap in early summer of 2001. Here we study the long-range transport of CO, concentrating on the transport from North America to Europe during northern winter and spring for 3 years, using and data assimilated in the MOZART model. The results indicate how much originates in North America, and how much is transported from greater distances before reaching Europe. They also show the amount of inter-annual variability in the source strengths and transports.
Heald, C. L., and T. T.-P. Team (2003), Continental outflow, transpacific transport and chemical evolution of Asian pollution observed from satellite and aircraft, p. 7481.
Satellite observations of carbon monoxide (CO) from the MOPITT instrument are combined with aircraft measurements from the TRACE-P aircraft mission over the NW Pacific, and with a global 3-D model of atmospheric chemistry (GEOS-CHEM) to quantify Asian pollution outflow over the Pacific and its transpacific transport during Spring 2001. The agreement between MOPITT and GEOS-CHEM for all the TRACE-P observations shows no global bias (R2=0.87, slope=0.95). We find that the CO column over SE Asia is overestimated by 18% in the model simulation, which can be attributed to either excessive biomass burning emissions or an overly-convective model. MOPITT observes four major events of transpacific transport of Asian pollution to the west of North America in Spring 2001, and these are also simulated by the GEOS-CHEM model. One of them (Feb. 26-27) was observed by the TRACE-P aircraft during transit flights across the Pacific (flights 4 and 5). Using the GEOS-CHEM model as an intermediary we have examined the development of this plume across the Pacific in the MOPITT and aircraft observations. This plume originates from a mixture of anthropogenic and biomass burning sources and was exported from Asia along a frontal system before encountering a blocking high in the mid-Pacific. The northern, high altitude branch (observed in flight 4) proceeded to bring elevated levels of CO to North America. The lower altitude branch (observed in flight 5) moved southward and stagnated in the mid-Pacific producing substantial levels of ozone.
Heald, C. L., D. J. Jacob, D. B. Jones, P. I. Palmer, J. A. Logan, D. G. Streets, G. W. Sachse, and J. C. Gille (2003), Integrating MOPITT and Aircraft Observations to Estimate Asian CO Emission Sources, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B799.
Satellite and aircraft observations of trace species provide independent top-down constraints on emissions. The integration of these data sets in a formal inverse model framework requires careful characterization of their error covariances. Daily MOPITT satellite observations and CO data from the TRACE-P aircraft mission over the NW Pacific are applied here to the regional estimation of emissions from Asia for the spring of 2001. We use the GEOS-CHEM global 3-D model of atmospheric chemistry as the forward model. A priori estimates of Asian emissions are based on state-of-the-science gridded inventories for the observation period, including daily satellite fire count data to constrain biomass burning emissions. The derived a posteriori emissions are consistent with the observations, a priori constraints and their respective errors. We account for the model transport error using an innovative approach based on paired forecasts as well as differences between observations and forecasts. This method accounts for the daily spatial correlations of the errors. We examine the sensitivity of the a posteriori source estimates to the structure of the error covariance as well as the complementarity of the satellite and aircraft observations towards constraining the detailed structure of Asian CO sources.
Ho, S., J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, J. Warner, M. N. Deeter, G. L. Francis, and D. Ziskin (2003a), Improvement of the Retrieval of Surface Parameters from MOPITT Measurements and their Impact to the Retrievals of Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Profiles, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A4.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important tropospheric trace species and can serve as a useful tracer of atmospheric transport. The Measurements of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument uses the 4.7 micron CO band to measure the spatial and temporal variation of the CO profile and total column amount in the troposphere from space. Launched in 1999 on board the NASA Terra satellite, the MOPITT instrument was designed to perform with about 3-4 km vertical resolution and 22 km horizontal resolution. MOPITT is an eight-channel gas correlation radiometer; each channel generates an average (A) signal and a difference (D) signal. The thermal channel A-signals are sensitive primarily to emission from the surface, which depends on both the surface skin temperature (Ts) and emissivity (E). The D-signals are sensitive to both thermal emission/reflection and solar reflection (daytime) from the surface and target gas absorption and emission for different vertical levels. Because 4.7 micron CO bands are relatively optical thin through the atmosphere, the surface emission always provides the primary signals to the 4.7 micron thermal channels for both A- and D-signals. In the operational MOPITT CO retrieval algorithm (V3), surface skin temperature and emissivity are retrieved simultaneously with the CO profile. To obtain accurate MOPITT CO results, it is also important to retrieve surface skin temperature and surface emissivity accurately, and understand the effects of any errors in retrieved surface skin temperature and surface emissivity on retrieved CO. In this study, simulated retrieval experiments will be conducted to show the impacts of errors in retrieved surface skin temperature and surface emissivity on retrieved CO. Because MOPITT A-signals are sensitive to both surface emissivity and surface skin temperature, it requires an accurate specification of the surface skin temperature to determine surface emissivity. Therefore, the collocated MODIS surface skin temperatures (MOD11) within the MOPITT FOV are used as inputs for MOPITT 7A-signal, which is least contaminated by atmospheric absorption of CO, to compute the surface emissivity through an iterative retrieval algorithm. The monthly 1 degree-gridded averaged MOPITT 4.7 micron surface emissivity map is then used as a priori surface emissivity to constrain the surface skin temperatures obtained from the MOPITT simultaneous inversion algorithm. The validation of this monthly 1 degree-gridded averaged 4.7 micron surface emissivity map is presented and its impacts to the retrievals of surface skin temperature and tropospheric CO profiles from MOPITT measurements are also discussed.
Ho, S.-P., J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, J. Warner, M. N. Deeter, G. L. Francis, and D. C. Ziskin (2003b), Validation of the retrieval of surface skin temperature and surface emissivity from MOPITT measurements and their impacts on the retrieval of tropospheric carbon monoxide profiles, vol. 4891, edited by & Y. S. H.-L. Huang, D. Lu, pp. 288–299. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.467311.
The Measurements of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument is designed to measure the spatial and temporal variation of the carbon monoxide (CO) profile and total column amount in the troposphere from the space. MOPITT channels are sensitive to both thermal emission from the surface and target gas absorption and emission. Surface temperature and emissivity are retrieved simultaneously with the CO profile. To obtain the desired 10% precision for the retrieved CO from MOPITT measurements, it is important to understand MOPITT CO channel sensitivity to surface temperature and emissivity and the impacts of the effects of any errors in retrieved skin temperature and emissivity on retrieved CO for various underlying surfaces. To demonstrate the impacts of the surface temperature and emissivity on the retrieval of the tropospheric CO profile, simulation studies are performed. The collocated Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface products are used to assess the accuracy of the retrieved MOPITT surface temperature and emissivity.
Hyer, E. J., D. J. Allen, E. S. Kasischke, and J. X. Warner (2003), Using MOPITT data and a Chemistry and Transport Model to Investigate Injection Height of Plumes from Boreal Forest Fires, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, I7.
Trace gas emissions from boreal forest fires are a significant factor in atmospheric composition and its interannual variability. A number of recent observations of emissions plumes above individual fire events (Fromm and Servranckx, 2003; COBRA 2003; Lamarque et al., 2003; Wotawa and Trainer, 2000) suggest that vertical properties of forest fire emission plumes can be very different from fossil fuel emission plumes. Understanding and constraining the vertical properties of forest fire emission plumes and their injection into the atmosphere during fire events is critical for accurate modeling of atmospheric transport and chemistry. While excellent data have been collected in a handful of experiments on individual fire events, a systematic examination of the range of behavior observed in fire events has been hampered by the scarcity of vertical profiles of atmospheric composition. In this study, we used a high-resolution model of boreal forest fire emissions (Kasischke et al, in review) as input to the Goddard/UM CTM driven by the GEOS-3 DAS, operating at 2 by 2.5 degrees with 35 vertical levels. We modeled atmospheric injection and transport of CO emissions during the fire season of 2000 (May-September). We altered the parameters of the model to simulate a range of scenarios of plume injection, and compared the resulting output to the CO profiles from the MOPITT instrument. The results presented here pertain to the boreal forest, but our methods should be useful for atmospheric modelers hoping to more realistically model transport of emission plumes from biomass burning. References: COBRA2003: see http://www.fas.harvard.edu/∼cobra/smoke_canada_030530.pdf Fromm, M. and R. Servranckx, 2003. ”Stratospheric Injection of Forest Fire Emissions on August 4, 1998: A Satellite Image Analysis of the Causal Supercell Convection.” Geophysical Research Abstracts 5:13118. Kasischke, E.S.; E.J. Hyer, N.H.F. French, A.I. Sukhinin, J.H. Hewson, B.J. Stocks, in review. ”Carbon Emissions from Boreal Forest Fires - 1996 to 2002.” Lamarque, J.-F., D.P. Edwards, L.K. Emmons, J.C. Gille, O. Wilhelmi, C. Gerbig, D. Prevedel, M.N. Deeter, J.X. Warner, D.C. Ziskin, B. Khattatov, G.L. Francis, V. Yudin, S. Ho, D. Mao, J. Chen, J.R. Drummond. ”Identification of CO plumes from MOPITT data: Application to the August 2000 Idaho-Montana forest fires.” Geophysical Research Letters 30(13):1688, doi:10.1029/2003GL017503. Wotawa, G. and M. Trainer. ”The influence of Canadian Forest Fires on Pollutant Concentrations in the United States.” Science 288:324-328.
Li, Q., D. Jacob, R. Park, and R. Yantosca (2003), Transport Pathways of North American Outflow: A Global 3-D Model Analysis Constrained by MOPITT, MODIS, and AERONET Observations, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, F3.
We use a global 3-D model (GEOS-CHEM) of tropospheric chemistry, fully coupled with aerosol simulation and nested over North America (1 degree by 1 degree) to examine the tranport pathways and associated mechanisms of North American pollution (CO, O3, and aerosols) outflow, particularly in the summer. MOPITT CO columns as well as aerosol optical depths from MODIS and AERONET are compared with model simulated CO columns and aerosol optical depths respectively to identify outflow events and the export patterns. The relatively high resolution (1x1) over the nested domain allow a more detailed examination of outflows due to (1) frontal lifting, (2) convection, and (3) Warm Conveyor Belt (WCB). Differences in the export of CO and aerosols, as suggested by MOPITT and MODIS observations as well as seen in the model, allow determination of whether the export is ahead of or behind the frontal systems. Examining each outflow events against synoptic weather systems would answer the question whether every frontal system leads to a pollution export event. We also examine the role of the recirculation over the Gulf of Mexico in exporting pollution from southeast U.S.
Liu, J., J. Drummond, F. Nichitiu, and J. Zou (2003), Correlating MOPITT CO Data With ATSR Fire Count Data, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C1080.
Biomass burning has long been recognized as a major source of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO). The MOPITT instrument (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) on board the Terra satellite is making global observations of CO and therefore provides a valuable dataset to assess CO emission from biomass burning at the global scale. In this study, we correlate MOPITT CO data with fire count data from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) on board the ERS-2 satellite. ATSR offers a surrogate for fire data and is one of a few global fire datasets available. As ATSR detects fires at night, nighttime CO is extracted and analyzed. For the first year operation of MOPITT from March 2000 to February 2001, CO emission from the biomass burning could be easily detected in many places around the world. Seasonal variations of CO emission from biomass burning for the different regions will be presented and the limitations of this analysis will be discussed.
Massie, S., J. Gille, D. Edwards, L. Emmons, M. Deeter, A. Lambert, H. Lee, O. Torres, and M. Fromm (2003), Multi-platform observations of Siberian forest fires, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, I4.
Observations of aerosol in the lower stratosphere during northern summer indicate that aerosol is transported from the lower troposphere into the stratosphere due to intense Boreal fires. Observations of Siberian fires in the Spring of 2003 are discussed to illustrate how multi-platform data can be used to study these events. MODIS aerosol optical depths,MOPITT CO mixing ratios, and POAM aerosol extinction data are used in an analysis of the Spring 2003 fires. Aerosol and CO is injected into the troposphere, and enhanced POAM aerosol appears in the lower stratosphere, in May. A historical perspective is given based upon POAM, SAGE, and TOMS data for years between 1985 and 2000, excluding 1991-1995(the period of time in which Pinatubo aerosol was influential). Toms aerosol optical depths at latitudes between 50 and 70 N are large (due to Boreal fires) during the same years in which enhanced aerosol extinction is also observed several km above the thermal tropopause. The longitudinal distribution of the aerosol enhancements in the lower stratosphere shows a preference for longitudes over eastern Siberia.
Maurellis, A. N., A. G. Straume, H. Schrijver, R. van Hees, P. Palmer, R. M. Yantosca, D. J. Jacob, and T. C. Team (2003), ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY Retrieval and Validation of CO, CH4 and other Greenhouse Gases, p. 9719.
The Scanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY), launched on board the ENVISAT satellite on 1 March 2002, currently measures earth-scattered light in eight UV, visible and near infrared channels (covering 240 nm to 2380 nm). Of considerable interest is channel 8 in nadir mode, which may be used for the detection of tropospheric H_2O, N_2O, and in particular, CO and CH_4. These are important atmospheric constituents for understanding global climate change and our knowledge of their distribution should be considerably enhanced using satellite measurements. We present the results of preliminary comparisons between our retrieval results and other satellite measurements (EOS-TERRA MOPITT) as well as models (GEOS-CHEM and TM5) which indicate that the ENVISAT/SCIAMACHY near-infrared channels are operating well, notwithstanding earlier ice contamination and calibration problems.
Nahidi, A., W. E. Roper, and R. B. Gomez (2003), Hyperspectral systems’ role in understanding the composition of atmospheric air pollution, vol. 5097, edited by N. L. F. & W. E. Roper, pp. 167–177. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.502417.
A wide variety of hyper-spectral (HS) sensors and collection platforms are in existence. This paper investigates hyper-spectral imaging systems (HIS) worldwide in order to address issues associated with the better both airborne and space based systems are included in the review. Examples of the sensors include ENVISAT, SCIAMACHY, TERRA, AQUA, MOPITT, MIPAS, AVIRIS, LIDAR, Landsat 7 and others. Applications include geo-environmental studies, aerosol release, materials identification, agricultural studies, atmospheric studies, and many others. Two case studies are presented that address the evaluation of African smog and its effect on the African ecosystem and the evaluation of aerosol pollution in the northeastern region of the United states with particular attention to particulate matter.
Newchurch, M., J. H. Kim, S. Na, and R. V. Martin (2003), Tropical tropospheric ozone morphology and seasonality seen in satellite, model, and in-situ measurements: No paradox in North Africa, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, D1014.
An important issue in satellite remote sensing techniques for retrieving tropical tropospheric ozone is to understand the cause of the disparity between ozone derived from satellite residual-based methods and the precursor distributions seen in both the fire-count distribution and the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) CO distributions in boreal winter and spring. This disparity has sometimes been termed the Northern Atlantic Paradox. We have employed an approach to probe the paradox problem with a new retrieval algorithm, the Scan Angle Method (SAM). This algorithm takes advantage of the difference in the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) retrieval information between nadir and high viewing angles. The averaging kernel for this difference exhibits a broad maximum centered at ∼5 km in the troposphere and thereby can be used as a surrogate of tropospheric ozone information. We have investigated the seasonality of satellite-derived products of fire counts and MOPITT CO concentration, TOMS Aerosol Index, ozone from GEOS-CHEM model and the Convective Cloud Differential (CCD) method along with the Tropospheric Ozone Index (TOI) from the SAM. In meridional distribution, all products except the CCD clearly reveal the seasonal oscillation between the maximum over northern tropical Africa in boreal winter and over southern tropical Africa in boreal summer. The CCD products always show the ozone maximum over the southern Atlantic off the coast of southwest Africa. Investigation of in-situ measurements from the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) campaign also reveals the ozone maximum in boreal summer and the minimum in boreal winter at three locations over the northern tropics; Abidjan (5,aN, 4,aW), Madras (13,aN, 80,aE), and Bangkok (14,aN, 101,aE). The seasonality of the SAM and the model ozone are in accordance with the MOZAIC measurements, but the CCD ozone is about six months out of phase.
Niu, J., M. N. Deeter, A. Hills, D. Ziskin, G. Francis, D. P. Edwards, and J. C. Gille (2003), MATR thermal channel analysis and results for autumn 2001 campaign, vol. 5157, edited by & Z. S. A. M. Larar, J. A. Shaw, pp. 34–41. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.508311.
The MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) Airborne Test Radiometer (MATR) uses gas filter correlation radiometry from high altitude aircraft to measure tropospheric carbon monoxide. This is in support of the ongoing validation campaign for the MOPITT instrument on board the Tera Satellite. This paper reports on a recent study of MATR CO retrievals using observations of thermal radiation during the autumn of 2001 in western United States. Retrievals of CO were performed and compared to in-situ sampling with less than 7% retrieval error relative to the in-situ total column amount. The effects that influence the retrieval such as the instrument sensitivity, the retrieval sensitivity, and bias between observations and the radiation model are discussed.
Petron, G., C. Granier, B. Khattatov, V. Yudin, J. Lamarque, L. Emmons, and J. Gille (2003), Inverse Modeling of Carbon Monoxide Surface Sources Using MOPITT Satellite Data, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B6.
Carbon monoxide CO is a key component of the troposphere. It is the principal sink of hydroxyl radicals OH in the free troposphere (CO global mean lifetime is about 2 months) and thus it controls indirectly the lifetime of many other species, such as methane CH4. In the presence of nitrogen oxides, NOx (>10-15 pptv), and sunlight, CO is a precursor of tropospheric ozone O3. The processes leading to the emission of CO are fairly well established. CO is a byproduct of fossil fuel use and incomplete biomass combustion. The incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbons also produces substantial amounts of CO. Uncertainties attached to CO sources are still high and, as a result, the comparison of model results and observations can show large discrepancies. These discrepancies are used to optimize the monthly sources of CO over large regions for the period April 2000 to March 2001.
Pfister, G., G. Petron, L. K. Emmons, D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, and J. Attie (2003), Evaluation of CO Simulations and the Analysis of the CO Budget for Europe, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, F59.
Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a well-suited indicator for the transport of pollutants in the troposphere on a regional and global scale. For the study presented here, simulations of CO concentrations from a global chemistry-transport model (MOZART-2) have been used to diagnose the contributions of different processes and sources on the CO load over Europe. The CO molecules in the model were tagged according to the emission type and the source region. A set of optimized surface emissions has been incorporated in the model runs derived by inversion of modeled CO concentrations with CO data from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) remote-sensing instrument. The evaluation of the model simulations is based on an extensive comparison with remote-sensing, aircraft, and ground-based CO measurements. The results indicate that the model values represent the background conditions as well as the large scale transport over Europe relatively well, and, therefore, are suited for studying the CO budget over Europe. The analysis of the tagged model simulations shows the predominating impact of European emissions on CO concentrations over Europe near the surface, and a strong influence of sources from North America and Asia on the CO load in the free troposphere. Focus has been set mainly on CO emitted from technological sources, biofuel use, and biomass burning, which together contribute to the total CO concentrations over Europe by about 40-70% near the surface, and by about 30-60% at 500hPa. The contributions from other sources (e.g. biogenics, photochemistry,...) on the CO burden over Europe are outlined too.
Pradier, S., J.-L. Attié, J.-F. Lamarque, V.-H. Peuch, D. P. Edwards, L. K. Emmons, and B. Khattatov (2003), MOPITT CO data assimilation by MOCAGE model, p. 8344.
MOPITT (Measurement of Pollution In The Troposphere) CO data are assimilated by MOCAGE model (MOdele de Chimie Atmosphérique à Grande Echelle) using a Kalman-Bucy filter. MOCAGE, developed by Meteo-France, is a chemical transport model with a horizontal grid of 2 degrees and 47 levels covering the atmospheric boundary layer, the free troposphere and the lower and upper stratosphere. MOPITT, onboard Terra satellite, can provide CO mixing ratio profiles which are reported at 5 levels in the troposphere with a 22x22 km^2 pixel size. We focus on several regions through the Earth to find out new insights by comparing assimilation and regular model version versus raw data (satellite, aircraft) in the troposphere. Regions will be chosen according the importance of CO emission in the troposphere such as Africa and SE Asia (biomass burning) or China, US and Europe (anthropogenic emissions).
Richards, N. A. D., J. J. Remedios, F. M. O’Connor, and N. H. Savage (2003), Comparisons of MOPITT and Model CO Data, p. 6220.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is the main reaction partner of the hydroxyl radical (OH) in the troposphere and since OH plays a central role in atmospheric chemistry, CO is an important trace gas. Satellite instruments offer a way to measure the concentration and distribution of CO on a global scale. One such instrument is the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument which was launched on December 18, 1999, onboard the NASA EOS-Terra satellite. It is a nadir viewing infra-red radiometer which targets measurements of CO and methane (CH_4) using gas correlation spectroscopy to improve its spectral sensitivity. The MOPITT CO profile measurements target both upwelling thermal radiance in the 4.6 μm fundamental band and reflected solar radiance in the 2.3 μm band; CH_4 column measurements are made at 2.2 μm. This study focuses on CO measurements from MOPITT, which currently employ the thermal channel data only to retrieve columns and profiles. Global chemistry transport models are also able to provide a global picture of CO and can be a useful tool for the validation, characterisation and interpretation of satellite measurements. The model used in this study is the tropospheric chemistry transport model, TOMCAT. It has monthly varying surface emissions, based on the IPCC Third Assessment Report for the year 2000, and also aircraft and lightning emissions. TOMCAT includes dry deposition, large scale advective transport, subscale convective and boundary layer exchanges, chemical and photochemical transformations as well as wet scavenging. The model is forced using ECMWF analysed meteorology and has a horizontal resolution of ∼2.8 x 2.8 degrees. It calculates the distributions of 41 of the main tropospheric chemical species on 31 levels between the surface and 10 hPa. In order to compare model with satellite data the effects of retrieval resolution and a priori information which characterise the satellite measurements must be taken into account. Both of these effects may be expressed mathematically in terms of the retrieval averaging kernel matrix. Each MOPITT profile has its own associated averaging kernel and this must be applied to the model profile before a direct comparison can be made. Results from comparisons of MOPITT and TOMCAT CO profiles using this approach will be shown for May 2000. The results demonstrate the need for the use of averaging kernels when comparing satellite data to other measurement systems, and also the ability of the MOPITT instrument to measure tropospheric CO concentrations on both the global and regional scale.
Richter, A. (2003), Measurements of Atmospheric Constituents from Space, p. 11688.
In the last decade, much progress was made in measuring atmospheric constituents from space, extending the range of measurements from the stratosphere to the troposphere and also adding many more species to the list of observable quantities. Starting with global measurements of water vapour and stratospheric ozone, we now have global data sets on many key quantities in stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, and more will be added in the next years. Although there still is room for much improvement in spatial coverage, spatial and temporal resolution and also data quality, the existing data sets already proved useful for model validation, pollution monitoring and also trend analysis. One of the major steps forward was the extension of measurements into the troposphere, in particular with the UV/visible instrument GOME for NO_2, BrO, HCHO, H_2O and SO_2 and the MOPITT instrument for CO. Very recently, the ENVISAT satellite added SCIAMACHY and MIPAS that further increased the number of observable species in the troposphere and the UT/LS, extending the range of applications of the satellite data. The presentation will focus on a description of the state of the art in remote sensing of atmospheric constituents from space emphasizing applications in tropospheric chemistry. Possible applications of space-borne measurements for monitoring of greenhouse gases will also be discussed and an outlook be given on future directions.
Ritchey, N. A. (2003), Tools and Services available from the Atmospheric Sciences Data Center, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, B26.
Two of the primary functions of the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (ASDC) are to distribute data to a wide variety of user communities such as scientists, researchers, and educational and commercial professionals and to provide expert assistance on the use of data holdings. In addition, ASDC provides ”value-added” capabilities such as subsetting data products and data visualization and tools to assist users in obtaining and working with the data products. Some of the key features of these tools available from the ASDC follow. Several tools for searching and ordering available data products are provided. These include the Langley Web Ordering Tools in Java and HTML and the EOS Data Gateway (EDG) tool which is a multi-DAAC ordering system. Subsetting of the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) is integrated directly into the Java ordering tool and subsetting of Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) data products is available once an EDG order is placed. The capability to quickly and easily download select data products from the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Core System (ECS) Data Pool is also available. Several tools are available to aid the user in visualizing specific data products. The on-line MISR Browse Tool provides quick and easy search capabilities to view MISR browse images with a few ”clicks” of a mouse. The misr_view tool is written in IDL and was developed for MISR and AirMISR data products (HDF-EOS ”Grid”) to allow selection of specified orbits, paths or observational dates and to enable translation between these modes of identification. The misr_view tool supports simultaneous viewing of 3 data planes and colorizes different planes having different native number types and spatial resolution. This tool was developed by and is distributed by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The view-hdf tool is written in Interactive Data Language (IDL) for use with the CERES data products to allow selection and subsetting of variables within the data structures, to render two and three-dimensional graphics, to plot geolocated data onto various map projections and to export data to a file in ASCII or HDF format. The view_hdf tool was developed by the CERES Data Management Team (DMT). The Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) Level 2 Viewer is written in IDL and was provided by the MOPITT DMT to create plots of data from MOPITT Level 2 files. The Virtual Global Explorer and Observatory (vGeo) Software was developed by VRCO, Inc and provides an immersive 3-D environment. This 3-D visualization capability can be used as a tool to combine and visually analyze data from multiple sources (e.g., model, airborne and ground based measurements and satellite observations). vGeo’s capability to merge measurements with model, aircraft and other data fields in a 3-D world allows a more realistic contextual representation of the model/measurement results. Information about all of the available data products, tools and services can be found at the ASDC web site, http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov
Straume, A. G., A. N. Maurellis, H. Schrijver, G. Lichtenberg, Q. Kleipool, R. van Hees, I. Aben, and R. Hoogeveen (2003), SCIAMACHY performance, retrieval, and validation of near-infrared CO, CH4, and CO2 measurements, p. 9251.
A good knowledge of the global distribution of the gases CO, CH4, and CO2 is needed in order to fully understand their role in atmospheric chemistry. These gases are important components in the interactions between long-term changes in atmospheric composition and global climate change. Measurements from satellites give an excellent opportunity for mapping the global distribution of these gases. The SCIAMACHY instrument, launched onboard the ENVISAT satellite on 1 March 2002, measures from the ultraviolet (at 240 nm) to the shortwave infrared (at 2380 nm). SCIAMACHY channels 6 and 7 are used to retrieve CO2, and CO and CH4 are retrieved from channel 8 together with H2O and N2O. In-flight calibration and characterisation of these detectors is done at SRON. The results from the channel 8 in-flight performance will be presented here together with the above mentioned total columns retrieved by algorithms developed at SRON. The columns are verified and validated by comparison to measurements by the MOPITT instrument, ground-based measurements, and calculations by a chemical transport model.
Yudin, V., J. Gille, J.-F. Lamarque, and B. Khattatov (2003), Tracer assimilation in the troposphere, p. 7972.
The practical specification of the model errors in the chemical data assimilation schemes is a central question for the sequential and variational data analyses. The types of errors attributable to the chemistry transport model (CTM) as a core forecast model in the chemical data assimilation are discussed. These errors are related with the CTM resolution, numerical schemes, uncertainties in the resolved and sub-grid transport parameters, surface emissions, chemical production and loss. The state-dependent scheme for the tracer covariance evolution is proposed and evaluated using the assimilation of the carbon monoxide data from the MOPITT instrument.
Zou, J., J. Liu, F. Nichitiu, H. Bremer, and J. R. Drummond (2003), On the Interpretation of the MOPITT-measured Carbon Monoxide (CO) Distribution in the Troposphere, edited by M. Ouellet, Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society, McDonald Building 150 Louis Pasteur, Ste 112 Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 Canada, [URL:http://www.cmos.ca]. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/21112978/13D67B341417399CE41/24?accountid=28174 .
The MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution In The Troposphere) instrument is an infrared radiometer aboard the NASA Terra Spacecraft, which was launched on Dec 18, 1999 and has been operating successfully since then. The MOPITT instrument has produced more than 3 years of carbon monoxide (CO) data. In this study we analyzed the “validated” version of CO data from March 2000 to May 2001. The CO distribution is described in terms of multi-layer maps for studying spatial patterns at different seasons, as well as time-longitude, time-latitude and time-altitude sections for studying the transport behavior. MOPITT utilizes an indirect technique to retrieve the CO concentration from the measured radiance. The nature of the retrieval is best characterized in terms of the averaging kernel, as well as the “a priori” knowledge of the CO distribution. The detailed information of these parameters is also contained in the data set. By incorporating this information we conducted a data quality analysis and provide interpretations of the retrieved CO regarding day/night difference and land/sea differences.

2002

Attié, J.-L., L. K. Emmons, J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, J. Warner, J.-F. Lamarque, M. Deeter, D. Ziskin, J. R. Drummond, and P. Novelli (2002), Seasonal Variation of Co Over SE Asia and China As Seen By The Mopitt Instrument, vol. 27, p. 3805.
The MOPITT instrument is a unique satellite instrument capable of measuring CO profiles on a global scale and over a period long enough to capture its seasonal varia- tion. We focus on the seasonal variation (from March 2000 to March 2001) of retrieved CO from MOPITT over SE Asia and China including the strong transport from Asia across the N. Pacific. We show that the seasonal variation of fires detected over SE Asia measured by the TRMM VIRS instrument is well correlated with high CO con- centrations over the same Asian region. Moreover, in situ observations over Hawaii (by NOAA/CMDL) agree with MOPITT CO and correlate with SE Asia fires. We use trajectories to follow CO plumes originating from biomass burning (mainly over SE Asia) or from industrial areas (China) across the N. Pacific. According to the season, we observed several pathways taken by CO plumes consistent with trajectories and the CO distribution from MOPITT.
Deschambault, R., J. Hackett, D. Henry, T. Girard, F. Nichitiu, J. Zou, R. Irvine, and J. R. Drummond (2002), MOPITT flight operations, vol. 6, pp. 3170–3173 vol.6.
This paper will describe the day-to-day control of the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument. The MOPITT onboard software is designed to make maintenance of the instrument fairly simple in nature. Very few commands are required during normal operations, and the instrument, once set up, can be run for several months with no additional intervention. The ground system that controls the Terra spacecraft, of which MOPITT is one instrument, allows both real time commanding and scheduled commanding. The scheduled commanding can be planned far in advance and uses pre-tested blocks of command sequences to do more complicated instrument functions, such as long calibration events. MOPITT commands are arranged in a hierarchy that allows top level routine commanding to be carried out efficiently, but also permits bottom level commanding to deal with unforeseen conditions. The extensive use of tables, and the ability to update the permanent memory on-orbit, all contribute to a simple yet powerful, control capability. Real time commanding is directed by MOPITT IOT (Instrument Operations Team) members at the University of Toronto (UoT) on a voice line that is permanently connected to the Earth Observing System (EOS) Operations Center (EOC) in Greenbelt, Maryland. A data link permits real-time displays of the instrument status to be viewed by the Toronto personnel. EOC personnel send instrument commands after confirmation from UoT personnel. This method of operation is extremely reliable and has been used extensively to do routine maintenance and configuration changes of the MOPITT instrument.
Drummond, J. R. (2002a), MOPITT: 12 years of planning and 2.5 years of operations, vol. 2, pp. 1085–1087 vol.2.
It has been nearly 15 years since the MOPITT program began. In that time the MOPITT team and the scientific community have developed a new instrument, new retrieval algorithms, and new models to utilise the data. The increase in our understanding over that time has been profound and the MOPITT data now being produced are set to further increase that knowledge as we incorporate the data into our current models and as we strive to understand how the troposphere transports minor constituents. In this talk I will give an overview of the background to the MOPITT project from inception to the present day. I will show how our knowledge has steadily increased, and how we arrived at our current understanding. In the context of a brief overview of the present position, I will show some examples of how the MOPITT data confirm (or deny) our current understanding of tropospheric transport and also what needs to be done in the near-term to make the maximum use of the MOPITT data.
Drummond, J. R. (2002b), The future of carbon monoxide measurements in the troposphere, vol. 2, pp. 1099–1101 vol.2.
With the success of the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument, which has now been operating for over two years on NASA’s Terra spacecraft, the utility of continuous tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring is being proved. While a number of other space instruments will be capable of making similar measurements in the foreseeable future (e.g. TES and SCIAMACHY), the future of the continuous monitoring role of the MOPITT-type instrument needs to be clearly defined. in this paper I will attempt to outline the plausible future of this type of measurement. Is it best performed from low Earth orbit, from geostationary orbit, or by a combination of the two? What have we learned from the first generation of CO monitors which we could use to improve the next generation? In what way must the instrument and measurement scenario be improved in order to meaningfully contribute to our understanding of lower atmospheric chemistry and dynamics? These questions should be addressed and answered if we are to build on the foundation of the MOPITT measurements to further our goal of understanding the atmosphere.
Edwards, D., J. Lamarque, J. Attie, L. Emmons, A. Richter, J. Cammas, L. Lyjak, J. Gille, and J. Drummond (2002a), Tropospheric ozone over the tropical Atlantic: The satellite perspective, vol. 34.
In this paper we use satellite sensor measurements to obtain a broader picture of the processes affecting tropical tropospheric chemistry and transport over Africa and the Atlantic in the early part of the year. We find that Terra/MOPITT CO retrievals corre- late well with biomass burning fire counts observed by the TRMM/VIRS instrument in northern hemisphere savanna regions, and allow the subsequent lifting of the biomass burning plume at the ITCZ and interhemispheric transport to be investigated. Mea- surements of NO2 from the ERS-2/GOME instrument enable the two main tropical sources, biomass burning and lightning, of this important O3 precursor to be identi- fied. Good correlation is also seen between NO2 retrievals and TRMM/LIS lightning flash observations in southern African regions free of biomass burning, thus indicat- ing a lightning source of NOx. The combination of MOPITT CO, GOME NO2, and TRMM fire and lightning flash counts provides a powerful tool for investigating the tropospheric production of O3 precursors. These data are used in conjunction with the MOZART-2 chemical transport model to investigate the early year tropical Atlantic tropospheric O3 distribution.
Edwards, D. P., J. L. Attie, J. F. Lamarque, J. C. Gille, and J. R. Drummond (2002b), Observations of Enhanced Co Concentrations From Biomass Burning In Africa and South America As Measured Byterra/mopitt, vol. 27, p. 778.
An important scientific goal of the Terra MOPITT instrument is to identify anthro- pogenic sources of carbon monoxide (CO) and to investigate the transport of pollution within the troposphere. In this paper we present observations of enhanced CO concen- trations retrieved from MOPITT measurements over Africa, the Atlantic and South America. The seasonal variation of the CO plume origins is seen to correlate well with the moving burning regions as detected by the TRMM VIRS instrument. We ex- amine the CO convection and transport over the Atlantic as indicated by the MOPITT profile measurements and examine trajectories to study the eventual fate of the CO emitted by burning once it reaches the free troposphere. We further discuss how the MOPITT CO retrievals can be combined with measurements of NO2 to examine the origin of tropospheric ozone precursors in the tropics.
Emmons, L., M. Deeter, D. Edwards, J. Gille, D. Ziskin, J.-L. Attie, J. Warner, J. R. Drummond, L. Yurganov, P. Novelli, N. Pougatchev, and F. Murcray (2002), Validation of MOPITT retrievals of carbon monoxide, vol. 6, pp. 3174–3176 vol.6.
Validation of the MOPITT retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO) has been performed with a varied set of correlative data. These include in situ observations from a regular program of aircraft observations at five sites. Additional in situ profiles are available from several short-term research campaigns. These in situ profiles are critical for the validation of the retrieved CO mixing ratio profiles from MOPITT. Ground-based spectroscopic measurements are compared to MOPITT CO total column densities to validate the observed seasonal cycles. The current validation results indicate good quantitative agreement between MOPITT and in situ profiles, with an average bias less than 20 ppbv. The same seasonal cycles are see in MOPITT and the ground-based spectroscopic data. These validation comparisons provide critical assessments of the retrievals, and continuing improvements to the retrieval algorithms are reducing the validation biases.
Feltz, J. M., J. X. Warner, E. M. Prins, and K. M. LaCasse (2002), GOES-8 ABBA Biomass Burning Observations and Downwind MOPPIT Carbon Monoxide Measurements, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, B1.
Studies have shown that biomass burning is a major source of aerosols and trace gases such as NO, CO2, CO, O3, NOx, N2O, NH3, SO2, CH3, and other nonmethane hydrocarbons. Preliminary global estimates indicate that biomass burning may be responsible for 38% of ozone in the troposphere, 32% of global carbon monoxide, 39% of the particulate organic carbon, and up to 40% of CO2. Recent advances in satellite technology provide the opportunity to investigate the linkages between fire activity and CO emissions using satellite derived fire products and CO retrievals. The Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin - Madison is using the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data to detect and monitor smoke and fires in real-time throughout the Western Hemisphere using the Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA). The Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) science team is retrieving carbon monoxide (CO) distributions from the MOPITT instrument on the Terra platform. Preliminary studies show good agreement between large biomass burning events as detected by GOES and regions of elevated MOPITT derived carbon monoxide values. Examples from several significant biomass burning events will be presented, along with transport analyses and MOPITT carbon monoxide summaries.
Francis, G. L., J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, and D. Ziskin (2002), Influence of surface reflectivity variability on MOPITT 2.2-2.3 mu;m channel radiances and the retrieval of CO and CH_4, vol. 2, pp. 1094–1096 vol.2.
The MOPITT (Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere) instrument uses gas-correlation spectroscopy to retrieve the tropospheric profile of CO and the total column of CO and CH_4 . The instrument’s 2.2-2.3 mu;m channel signals can be used to determine the CH_4 and CO columns. At these wavelengths, surface effects are important since the channel radiances are determined by reflected solar radiation. Small changes in scene during data acquisition for a given pixel can introduce important variations in surface reflectivity, even when averaged over the instrument field-of-view. These variations must be carefully accounted for to ensure a quality column retrieval. MOPITT simulations based on reflectivity measurements from the MODIS Airborne Simulator are used to construct examples illustrating these effects, along with a method for their mitigation.
Gille, J., M. Deeter, D. Edwards, L. Emmons, G. Francis, B. Khattatov, J. Warner, V. Yudin, D. Ziskin, and J. Drummond (2002a), Mopitt Measurements of Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide and Methane, vol. 27, p. 6510.
The Measurements of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument is now measuring the vertical distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) and total column of methane (CH4) from the EOS Terra platform in low earth orbit. Since March 2000 it has been making measurements of upwelling infrared radiation, from which the geophysical data are retrieved. Here we outline the instrument and the data reduction algorithms, and present examples of global data, indicating some of the major factors affecting CO distributions. We also show initial examples of the CH4 results. Com- parisons with in situ data indicate the accuracy of the data. We close with some plans for refining the results.
Gille, J., J. Drummond, M. Deeter, D. Edwards, L. Emmons, G. Francis, S. Ho, B. Khattatov, J. Lamarque, and D. Ziskin (2002b), The global distribution of tropospheric CO derived from the MOPITT experiment, vol. 34.
The Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument is an 8 channel infrared correlation radiometer flying on NASA’s Terra spacecraft. It has been making measurements since March 2002, from which the vertical distribution and total column amounts of CO have been retrieved. We will show results from validation studies, indicating the accuracy and precision of the retrievals. We will devote most of the time to showing results of the latest retrieval version, indicating the location of major sources and displaying CO transports over long distances. The status of the methane retrievals will also be mentioned.
Hackett, J. P., D. Caldwell, J. R. Drummond, and R. Colley (2002), Layout and packaging of the MOPITT instrument, vol. 4486, edited by M. S. & B. F. Andresen, pp. 122–130. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.455101.
The Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument is one of five instruments flying on NASA’s Terra (formerly EOS-AM1) spacecraft that was launched in December 1999. This paper describes the MOPITT instrument mechanical configuration and how it was derived based on system considerations and spacecraft interfaces. These system level considerations include contamination control, EMC/EMI, thermal, optical and structural behavior. The key spacecraft interfaces include mechanical mounting, optical field-of-view (FOV), and thermal transfer. In addition, a detailed discussion is provided for the cryogenic region of the instrument that contains detectors, cold optics, warm optics, and active coolers. Special test fixtures were designed and incorporated in this region of the instrument to permit cooling of the detectors during ambient atmospheric conditions. Some of these test fixtures were designed to fly due to the difficulty in removing them. This utility of operating the instrument’s cryogenic detectors within the laboratory environment was extremely beneficial during the instrument optical alignment, EMC testing, and special optical system tests. Final configuring (or closeout) of the instrument’s cryogenic region for flight was performed to balance contamination and EMC risks. On-orbit data about the effectiveness of this closeout is provided.
Henry, D., J. P. Hackett, J. R. Drummond, and R. Colley (2002), Timing control and signal processing design of the MOPITT instrument, vol. 4486, edited by M. S. & B. F. Andresen, pp. 131–139. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.455103.
The MOPITT instrument operates on the principle of correlation spectroscopy where the incoming signal is modulated by gas filter and chopper mechanisms and synchronously demodulated within the signal processing system. The performance and flexibility required by the MOPITT instrument resulted in the development of a novel timing control and signal processing design. This design synchronizes modulation and demodulation from a central programmable timing control unit. The data collection system performs a highly linear sigma-delta analog-to-digital conversion prior to signal demodulation. The demodulation operation includes data averaging which reduces the sampled signal bandwidth and extends the signal to noise ratio of the data to in excess of the analog-to-digital converter’s rated 16-bit dynamic range.
Ho, S., J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, M. N. Deeter, J. Warner, G. L. Francis, and D. Ziskin (2002), Retrieval of surface skin temperature from MOPITT measurements: validation and impacts to the retrievals of tropospheric carbon monoxide profiles, vol. 6, pp. 3177–3179 vol.6.
The Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument is designed to measure the spatial and temporal variation of the carbon monoxide (CO) profile and total column amount in the troposphere from space. MOPITT channels are sensitive to both thermal emission from the surface and target gas absorption and emission. Surface temperature and emissivity are retrieved simultaneously with the CO profile. To obtain the desired precision for the retrieved CO profiles, it is important to retrieve the surface skin temperature accurately and understand the effects of any errors in retrieved skin temperature on retrieved CO. To demonstrate the impacts of surface skin temperature on the retrieval of the tropospheric CO profile, a simulation study is performed. The collocated Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface temperatures are used to validate the accuracy of the retrieved MOPITT surface temperatures.
Hyer, E. J., E. S. Kasischke, J. X. Warner, and D. J. Allen (2002), Modeling Biomass Burning Emissions for comparison with MOPITT retrievals: Boreal Forest Case Studies, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C44.
The Measurement of Pollutants in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument on board the Terra satellite, launched in 1999, uses gas correlation spectrometry to measure the atmospheric concentration of carbon monoxide and methane, incorporating a high horizontal and temporal resolution and also extracting information about the vertical distribution of CO through the tropospheric column. Several experiments have demonstrated the sensitivity of the MOPITT retrieval to biomass burning events that produce large fluxes of CO to the atmosphere. A quantitative assessment of the MOPITT signal must be undertaken to determine the potential of these data for testing sophisticated hypotheses generated by emissions models. This assessment, however, requires a numerical simulation of a CO emission event at appropriate spatial and temporal scales. We have evaluated two case studies from fire events in the North American boreal forest in the summer of 2000, in northern Saskatchewan and interior Alaska. Both events were large complexes of fires, 50,000 ha in Saskatchewan and over 300,000 ha in Alaska, mostly in areas of limited suppression. In both cases, the greater part of the area burned was covered by the fire during just a few days, though the fires burned for several weeks. We evaluated ground-based data from fire management agencies together with satellite products to explore the complexities of modeling emissions events at a temporal resolution appropriate for comparison with the MOPITT data. We used all available data to construct several spatially and temporally resolved emissions simulations for these fire events, representing the range of uncertainty from the data sources, as well as theoretical uncertainties in the emissions model used. These emissions simulations were then propagated into the atmosphere using very simple atmospheric models, allowing qualitative comparison with the MOPITT data set. The results obtained from this experiment will contribute improved understanding of input data requirements and modeling methods for subsequent efforts at modeling atmospheric impacts of biomass burning emissions.
Jacob, D. J., J. H. Crawford, H. E. Fuelberg, V. E. Connors, M. M. Kleb, R. J. Bendura, and J. L. Raper (2002), The NASA/GTE/TRACE-P Mission:Design and Execution, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, D1.
The Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission was conducted in February-April 2001 over the western Pacific by the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE). It had two objectives: (1) to determine the chemical composition of the Asian outflow over the western Pacific in order to understand and quantify the export of chemically and radiatively important gases and aerosols, and their precursors, from the Asian continent; (2) to determine the chemical evolution of the Asian outflow and to understand the ensemble of processes that control this evolution. TRACE-P used two aircraft, a DC-8 and a P-3B, operating out of Hong Kong and Japan. Measurements on both aircraft included ozone and its precursors, aerosols and their precursors, and long-lived greenhouse gases. Flights were designed to capture the ensemble of major source regions and meteorological pathways contributing to the Asian outflow. Chemical forecasts from five 3-D models were used to supplement meteorological forecasts and to optimize the value of the TRACE-P data set for testing these models. Linkages were made with concurrent measurements from other platforms, including the ACE-Asia aircraft mission and satellites, in order to produce an integrated data set directed at the TRACE-P objectives. Several validation profiles were conducted for the MOPITT carbon monoxide instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Interpretation of the TRACE-P data set is now providing new insights into the nature and magnitude of Asian sources and their contributions to global atmospheric composition.
Jounot, L. J., and J. R. Drummond (2002), Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere-Aircraft (MOPITT-A), vol. 6, pp. 3180–3182 vol.6.
MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) is a carbon monoxide and methane remote sounder launched in 1999 with the Terra spacecraft. An aircraft replica (MOPITT-A) has been developed at the University of Toronto to perform validation of MOPITT radiances as well as small-scale pollution studies. MOPITT-A is based on the engineering model of MOPITT, modified for flight in NASA’s ER-2 research aircraft. The instrument was first tested over California from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in July 2000. In August and September 2000, it participated in the SAFARI 2000 field campaign in South Africa. This paper presents some of the data collected during SAFARI 2000. MOPITT-A is financed by the Canadian Space Agency and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council.
Khattatov, B., G. Petron, J. Lamarque, V. Yudin, J. Gille, D. Edwards, D. Ziskin, G. Francis, M. Deeter, G. Brasseur, C. Granier, P. Rasch, D. Kinnison, S. Waters, L. Emmons, D. Hauglustaine, L. Lyjak, and J. Drummond (2002), New results from inverse modeling of CO sources using MOPITT data., AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A76.
The MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) instrument on board the NASA Terra satellite has beet taking measurements of tropospheric carbon monoxide since March of 2000. MOPITT measurements provide a unique opportunity to better understand surface sources and sinks of carbon monoxide. Such task, however, is made difficult due to chemical interactions of carbon monoxide with OH and other atmospheric chemicals. These interactions make the relationship between local concentrations of CO and its surface emissions non-linear. We present new results of using inverse modeling framework for quantitative estimation of surface sources of carbon monoxide.
Larar, A. M., W. L. Smith, D. K. Zhou, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, H. E. Revercomb, and D. C. Tobin (2002), Spectral radiance validation studies using NAST-I and other independent measurement systems, vol. 4485, edited by A. M. L. & M. G. Mlynczak, pp. 81–90. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.454238.
The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Airborne Sounding Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I), is the infrared component of a suite of airborne infrared and microwave spectrometers, developed for the Integrated Program Office (IPO), that has been flying on high-altitude aircraft as part of the risk reduction effort for NPOESS. It is a high spectral resolution (0.25 cm-1, unapodized) and high spatial resolution (∼2 km, nadir) cross-track scanning (∼ 45 km swath width, at 20 km aircraft altitude) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) observing within the 3.7 - 16.1 micron spectral range. In addition to characterizing the atmospheric thermal and moisture structure and providing information on radiatively active trace gases (e.g. O3 amp CO) during field experiments, NAST-I measurements greatly contribute toward instrument and forward model pre-launch specification optimization (i.e., for the Cross-track Infrared Sounder, CrIS, to fly on NPOESS) and will enhance post-launch calibration/validation activities for CrIS as well as for other future advanced atmospheric spaceborne sensors (e.g., the EOS AIRS, CERES, MODIS, MOPITT, amp TES instruments). In this paper, we investigate some of the challenges associated with validating infrared spectral radiances obtained from remote sensing measurements and forward model simulations. Specifically, measured infrared spectral radiances are compared with radiance calculations performed using a Line by Line forward radiative transfer model based on nearly-coincident temperature and water vapor profiles observed with several independent in-situ, passive, and active measurement systems.
Liu, J., and J. R. Drummond (2002), MOPITT detection of carbon monoxide emitted from biomass burning: a case study, vol. 6, pp. 3183–3185 vol.6.
The EOS Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) is the first free-flying instrument for global measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) in the atmosphere from space. Because biomass burning is one of the major sources of CO to the atmosphere, the capacity of MOPITT to detect CO released from biomass burning is important and is the subject of this investigation. A study area with a series of fire events in the year 2000 in the northwest United States is selected. Fire data, detected with Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) from the satellite, were acquired and processed to spatially and temporally match the CO data. It is found that the increase of CO in the atmosphere is closely related to burning area and density in the study area. It appears that MOPITT can detect the CO increase due to biomass burning in a forested area when the fire size is over 40 km^2 , i.e. 8% of a MOPITT pixel.
Massie, S. T., R. Ueyama, and D. P. Edwards (2002), Multi-Sensor Observations of Asian Aerosol and CO, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C162.
Remote sensing observations of aerosol from the MODIS, SAGE II, and TOMS experiments, and CO from the MOPITT experiment are analyzed both globally and for Asia in particular. SAGE II aerosol extinction data for 1987-2000 and MOPITT CO mixing ratios for May 2000 - April 2001 are examined at several altitudes in the troposphere. Vertically integrated aerosol data from the MODIS experiment, and TOMS aerosol index data in 2001 are also analyzed. Regional averages of aerosol and CO are calculated for Western China (desert), Eastern China (industrial), and over the North Pacific (downwind of Asia), and are used to estimate the contributions of Asia to global loadings of aerosol and CO.
McCourt, M. L., W. W. McMillan, L. Sparling, J. Lukovich, H. REvercomb, R. Knuteson, and P. Antonelli (2002), Intercomparison of In situ and remote sensing observations of tropospheric carbon monoxide abundances during SAFARI 2000, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, B4.
Anthropogenic carbon monoxide is primarily introduced into the troposphere as a by-product from biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion. Evidence supporting this claim was acquired by the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (SHIS) while aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft during the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). Data aquired from fourteen flights cover the southern portion of Africa and adjacent bodies of water during August and September 2000. Using a Fourier signal processing technique for the 1–0 vibration-rotation band of CO centered near 2142 cm-1, we detect enhancements of tropospheric carbon monoxide directly associated with fires during the September 1 night flight over Zambia and the September 7 day flight over Timbavati Game Reserve. These flights and the September 6 day flight over Mongu Tower Zambia, not a fire site, enables intercomparison with in situ CO profiles obtained by other aircraft including, the University of Wisconsin Convair-580 and the South African JRB Aerocommander. In addition, the river of smoke was observed during both the September 6 and 7 flights showing CO levels generally correlated with TOMS Aerosol Index. Ultimatly, SHIS retrievals will provide validation for the MOPITT instrument onboard the NASA Terra satellite.
McKernan, E., B. M. Quine, and J. R. Drummond (2002), MOPITT sensitivity studies: Computation of instrument parameter dependencies, vol. 2, pp. 1102–1104 vol.2.
A detailed radiative transfer model of the MOPITT instrument and the Earth’s atmosphere was developed and validated. This model simulates the various radiometric sources for the instrument (atmosphere, space, onboard and laboratory calibration targets) as well as a number of detailed internal features not considered in the operational MOPITT retrieval algorithm (optical imbalance, chopper emission, etc.). It was employed to establish sensitivity levels of MOPITT to the uncertainty in various instrument parameters. It should also prove useful in the development of successor MOPITT instruments, and related correlation radiometers. The sensitivity studies highlighted several critical parameters including the filter positions, gas cell lengths and pressures, and optical imbalance. MOPITT calibration events are shown to reduce the impact of instrument parameter uncertainties on target gas retrievals, but in-flight validation is likely required for MOPITT to achieve its stated accuracy objectives.
McMillan, W. W., M. L. McCourt, L. Sparling, J. Lukovich, H. Revercomb, R. Knuteson, and P. Antonelli (2002), Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Measurements from the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder during SAFARI 2000 on September 7, 2000, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, B2.
Tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) column densities are presented for more than 9000 spectra obtained by the University of Wisconsin–Madison (UWis) Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (SHIS) during a flight on the NASA ER-2 on September 7, 2000, as part of the SAFARI 2000 international field campaign. CO retrievals were performed utilizing a portion of the CO 1–0 vibration-rotation band centered at 2142∼wn with an algorithm previously demonstrated for the SHIS predecessor HIS instrument. On this flight, enhancements in tropospheric column CO were seen in the vicinity of a controlled burn in the Timbavati Game Reserve near Kruger National Park in northeastern South Africa and over the edge of the river of smoke in south central Mozambique. Relatively clean air was observed over the far southern coast of Mozambique on the other side of the waning baroclinic westerly wave responsible for driving the river of smoke. Quantitative comparisons are presented with in situ measurements from five different instruments flying on two other aircraft, the University of Washington Convair-580 and South Africa JRB, in the vicinity of the Timbavati fire. Measured tropospheric CO columns (extrapolated from 337 mb to 100 mb) of 2.1 x 1018 cm-2 in background air and up to 1.5 x 1019 cm-2 in the smoke plume agree extremely well with SHIS retrieved tropospheric CO columns of 2.3 +/- 0.25 x 1018 cm-2 over background air near the fire and 1.5 +/- 0.35 x 1019 cm-2 over the smoke plume. Qualitative inter-comparisons are presented for three other in situ CO profiles obtained by the South African JRA aircraft over Mozambique and northern South Africa showing the influence of the river of smoke. 13 SHIS flights remain to be studied in detail with more comparisons to in situ measurements and eventual use of the full suite of SHIS CO retrievals for validation of the MOPITT instrument onboard the NASA Terra satellite.
Menard, R., A. Robichaud, and J. Kaminski (2002), Assimilation and inverse modeling of MOPITT CO observations, vol. 2, pp. 1097–1098 vol.2.
Remotely sensed observations are inherently incomplete, and some method must be used to obtain a complete and global state of the atmosphere. Data assimilation is a method that combines an atmospheric model with observations in a dynamically and chemically coherent state of the atmosphere. The degree to which measurements contradicts model-predicted fields can also be an indicator of problems with the instrument, the measurement technique, the inversion, or of the model. The research presented here aims towards obtaining the chemical state of the atmosphere with an emphasis on global atmospheric pollution in the troposphere using observations from MOPITT.
Morris, K. L., and L. A. Hunt (2002), Terra Aerosol, Cloud and Tropospheric Chemistry Data Sets Available From the NASA Langley ASDC, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A57.
Data from three instruments currently flying aboard the Terra satellite whose measurements include aerosols, clouds, and tropospheric chemistry are available from the NASA Langley Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (ASDC). The Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument measures broadband radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere along with cloud and aerosol properties. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument obtains precisely calibrated images at nine different viewing angles and four wavelengths to provide radiance, aerosol, cloud and land surface data. The Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument makes global measurements of methane and carbon dioxide concentrations. The Terra satellite, part of NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite series, was launched on December 18, 1999. The NASA Langley Atmospheric Sciences Data Center archives and distributes data from all three of these instruments. Data, tools and information are available at the ASDC web site, http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov.
Niu, J., M. Deeter, A. Hills, G. Francis, D. P. Edwards, and J. C. Gille (2002), Recent MATR retrieval results over Los Angeles, vol. 6, pp. 3186–3188 vol.6.
The MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) Airborne Test Radiometer (MATR) uses gas filter correlation radiometry to measure tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) using one length-modulated correlation cell and one pressure-modulated correlation cell. The aircraft that carries MATR usually also carries an in situ sampling system. This paper presents an overview of the MATR instrument and its validation (using in situ data), and then presents results from a flight over Los Angeles.
Pougatchev, N. S., G. W. Sachse, Y. Kondo, W. L. Smith, D. K. Zhou, D. Jacob, and S. V. Kireev (2002), Multiplatform Measurements of Carbon Monoxide During TRACE-P Period, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A137.
CO measurements were performed by aircraft in situ sensors (DACOM instrument), satellite remote sensor (MOPITT instrument), airborne emission Fourier transform spectrometer (NAST-I) instrument, and ground-based solar Fourier Transform IR spectrometers. All the mentioned above instruments have different spatial resolution, utilize different calibration and retrieval techniques and, moreover, measurements were not collocated in time and space. All the factors make the problem of evaluation of the consistency of the CO data sets very important. We applied averaging kernel formalism to make intercomparable remote sensing and in situ data. We used statistical and meteorological analyses along with the modeling results to estimate an impact of nonsynchronous CO measurements. We demonstrated that all the CO data sets are consistent and can be used for CO transport and chemistry studies.
Remedios, J. J., N. A. D. Richards, N. Savage, and F. O’Connor (2002), Retrieval of CO column and profile data in the region of Europe from the MOPITT instrument, vol. 2, pp. 1088–1090 vol.2.
The region of Europe is interesting for the study of CO due to the combination of local sources of pollution and transport of high levels of CO from distant sources. Since the former more readily affects the boundary layer, and the latter may involve lofting to higher altitudes as well as long range transport, the profile shape of CO may vary considerably. Typical model profiles of CO for ocean and continental Europe are compared to those retrieved from MOPITT observations.
Richards, N. A. D., and J. J. Remedios (2002), Characteristics of Co Profile Data From The Mopitt Instrument On Eos-terra, vol. 27, p. 2811.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is the main reaction partner of the hydroxyl radical (OH) in the troposphere and since OH plays a central role in atmospheric chemistry, CO is an important trace gas. Satellite instruments offer a way to measure the concentration and distribution of CO on a global scale. One such instrument is the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument which was launched on Decem- ber 18, 1999, onboard the NASA EOS-Terra satellite. It is a nadir viewing infra-red radiometer which targets measurements of CO and methane (CH4) using gas corre- lation spectroscopy to improve its spectral sensitivity. The CO profile measurements are made at 4.6 µm and 2.3 µm exploiting both upwelling thermal radiance and re- flected solar radiance. This study focuses on CO measurements from MOPITT, which currently employ the thermal channel data to retrieve columns and profiles. Investigation of the characteristics of MOPITT data in particular regimes, such as pollution measurements in the region of Europe and the examination of the effects of CO profile shape on MOPITT retrievals of CO in the region of Europe will be achieved through the use of retrieval simulations. An off-line data inversion system (retrieval algorithm) is currently under development. Preliminary results will be shown from retrieval simulations for a MOPITT-like instrument performed using the four thermal infra-red channels only. The simulations use optimal estimation techniques to derive typical retrieval errors given pre-computed spectra and weighting functions generated by an accurate, state of the art, infra-red, line by line radiative transfer model, the Oxford Reference Forward Model (RFM). Preliminary MOPITT data will also be shown to demonstrate the instrument’s ability to observe regional CO sources as well as providing a global picture of CO behaviour.
Sauvage, B., V. Thouret, J.-P. Cammas, G. Athier, and P. Nedelec (2002), Ozone Distribution Over West Africa As Seen By The Mozaic Program., vol. 27, p. 5618.
Since the beginning of 1997 the MOZAIC program has started to record ozone and water vapor over West Africa. These data are of particular interest because they fill the gap in available experimental data over this region. Therefore they will allow a first assessment of the ozone budget in this poorly known region. We will show in- dividual and monthly mean vertical profiles of ozone recorded at the vicinity of a few regions from 15N to 5S. This first analysis of the MOZAIC data over West Africa will be completed by other in-situ ozone measurements, and combined with the CO data from the MOPITT instrument. The seasonal variations are characteristic of the tropical locations with a maximum of ozone in the lower troposphere during the burning season. The tropical Atlantic region is also known for its ozone paradox [Thompson et al., 1999]. We will show how the MOZAIC data can help to go a step further in the interpretation of this transport process. The MOZAIC data combined with the ECMWF diagnostics will then lead to a better understanding of the ozone distribution over these tropical regions in respect to the particular dynamical situation (the West African monsoon for example).
Schultz, M. G., and T. T.-P. S. Team (2002), The Nasa Gte Trace-p Experiment Spring 2001 - Overview, vol. 27, p. 4953.
The Transport and Chemical Evolution - Pacific (TRACE-P) experiment is the latest in the series of global tropospheric experiments organised by NASA. In spring 2001, two aircraft spent more than 5 weeks in the Northern Pacific in order to determine the chemical composition and quantify the export of radiatively important gases and aerosols and their precursors from the Asian continent. The second objective was to understand the chemical evolution of such outflow as it is transported across the Pacific ocean. Besides providing a wealth of high-quality in-situ and remote measurement data, the TRACE-P campaign explored new ways for utilising atmospheric chemical models and satellite observations for the planning and analyses of flights. Further- more, TRACE-P had a link with the concurrent ACE Asia experiment and served as validation experiment for the MOPITT CO sensor onboard the TERRA spacecraft. This talk will provide an overview about the planning and execution of the mission and present some preliminary results.
Tolton, B. T., G. Mand, G. V. Bailak, and J. R. Drummond (2002), The radiometric calibration of the MOPITT carbon monoxide length modulated radiometer channels, vol. 6, pp. 3189–3191 vol.6.
The MOPITT instrument is measuring atmospheric columns and profiles of carbon monoxide and columns of methane from NASA’s Terra satellite. To make these measurements, MOPITT utilises six length modulated radiometers (LMRs). Prior to the integration of MOPITT onto Terra, the radiometric response of the LMRs to simulated atmospheres was measured. Comparison of these measurements to theoretically calculated signals have shown that the response of the carbon monoxide radiometers is within the errors of the calculations. The primary sources of error in these calculations are errors and/or uncertainties in the LMC gas pressure, LMC correlation cell length, and LMR imbalance.
Warner, J., D. Grant, J. C. Gille, J. R. Drummond, D. P. Edwards, M. N. Deeter, G. L. Francis, D. C. Ziskin, M. W. Smith, B. Ho, L. K. Emmons, J.-L. Attie, and J. S. Chen (2002), MOPITT cloud detection and its validation, vol. 4485, edited by A. M. L. & M. G. Mlynczak, pp. 498–502. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.454287.
The measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft measures tropospheric CO and CH4 by use of a nadir-viewing geometry. MOPITT cloud algorithm detects and removes measurements contaminated by clouds before retrieving CO profiles and CO and CH4 total columns. The collocation between MOPITT and MODIS is also established and MODIS cloud mask will be used in the MOPITT cloud algorithm. The cloud detection results in the use of MOPITT data alone agree with MODIS cloud mask for more than 80% of the tested cases.
Wiacek, A., D. Yashcov, K. Strong, L. Boudreau, L. Rochette, and C. Roy (2002), Ground-based Measurements of Vertical Profiles and Columns of Atmospheric Trace Gases Over Toronto Using a New High-Resolution Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, C188.
The University of Toronto Atmospheric Observatory (TAO) has recently been established at Toronto, Canada. TAO includes several instruments, with a DA8 Fourier Transform Spectrometer (DA8 FTS, manufactured by ABB Bomem Inc., Québec, Canada) serving as the primary instrument at the facility. The geographic position of TAO (43.66°N, 79.40°W) makes it well suited for long-term measurements of mid-latitude stratospheric ozone and related species, while its urban setting enables measurements of tropospheric pollution. The DA8 FTS is based on a Michelson interferometer with a maximum optical path difference of 250 cm, providing a maximum unapodized resolution of 0.0026 cm-1. It is currently equipped with KBr and CaF2 beamsplitters, and InSb and HgCdTe detectors, for coverage of the spectral range from 700 to 4100 cm-1. A new heliostat (manufactured by Aim Controls Inc., California, USA) provides active solar tracking, collecting the incoming solar radiation and directing it into the FTS. The TAO DA8 FTS incorporates a new optical design recently developed by ABB Bomem Inc., which results in a fixed optical axis through the beamsplitter (and a fixed focal point on the detector) as well as a more stable modulation efficiency. The new instrument optics will be discussed. Next, the performance of the instrument will be examined in the context of standard NDSC (Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change) trace gas column and vertical profile retrieval techniques, which use least squares fitting algorithms (SFIT, SFIT2). TAO has been operational (weather permitting) since October 2001. We have been retrieving columns and vertical profiles of HCl, HF, CH4, OCS, C2H6, CO, N2O and NO2 since May 2002. A detailed error analysis of retrieved columns and vertical profiles has been undertaken for the above species. Future plans for the TAO FTS include comparing our measurements with satellite measurements made by MOPITT, OSIRIS, and the upcoming ACE and MAESTRO instruments. Finally, we are investigating the feasibility of making broadband infrared measurements of aerosols using the TAO DA8 FTS.
Ziskin, D. C., J. S. Chen, and C. Cavanaugh (2002), Preparing for a storm: the MOPITT SIPS experience, vol. 4483, edited by W. L. Barnes, pp. 287–290. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.453465.
MOPITT is an instrument aboard NASA’s Terra spacecraft. To process the data from raw instrument counts to observations of Carbon Monoxide and Methane a system was established at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). This Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) was quickly deployed prior to launch as an alternative to data processing within the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Core System (ECS). The system was tested a few months before launch and soon became operational. During testing and after launch many lessons were learned due to the divergence between assumptions and reality. The main points to be aware of in order to avoid the worst SIPS problems are: *Don’t believe everything you read. *Be flexible. *Test everything. *Build teamwork. *Be consistent. This presentation will provide examples of these principles.
Zou, J., F. Nichitiu, and J. R. Drummond (2002), The calibration of the MOPITT instrument, vol. 2, pp. 1091–1093 vol.2.
The MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) instrument aboard the Terra Spacecraft was launched on Dec. 18, 1999 and has operated successfully since then. Instrument radiances are calculated from a total of 8 channels, which are combined in a retrieval scheme to measure the carbon monoxide (CO) profile and methane (CH_4 ) column in the troposphere. The instrument gain and offset, which are the key parameters to utilize the instrument measurements and to evaluate performance, are determined through an in-flight 2-point calibration scheme. Fluctuations and trends in the gain and offset on various time scales can be understood in terms of the instrument design, its performance, and the thermal environment. Some techniques for optimizing the noise levels as well as alternative methods of data processing, such as are required to cope with instrument anomalies, will be discussed.

2001

Attié, J. E., M. N. Deeter, J. Gille, D. P. Edwards, L. K. Emmons, D. Ziskin, and P. Novelli (2001), Comparison of CO from MOPITT with aircraft measurements, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, 52.
This work is focused on the validation of CO retrievals from MOPITT (Measurement of Pollution In The Troposphere) comparing with insitu data. Insitu measurements are mostly aircraft profiles performed during almost one year at various sites, with different techniques. Specific sites are especially for the purpose of validation whereas others are from diverse experiments. A statistical approach is done over about hundred profiles coincident with MOPITT pixels. Results from the comparison of the CO total column as well the mixing ratio at different levels are presented.
Deeter, M. N., L. Emmons, D. Edwards, G. Francis, J. Gille, and P. Novelli (2001a), Detailed Validation of MOPITT Instrument Radiances Using In-situ Profile Data, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, F143.
Operational retrievals of carbon monoxide profiles using data from the MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) instrument are based on a total of 12 calibrated satellite radiances in two spectral bands. To a large extent, the quantitative agreement of the satellite radiances with values calculated by the MOPITT operational forward radiative transfer model determines the ultimate accuracy of the MOPITT CO retrieval results. For example, a radiance bias as small as 1% in one particular signal may produce a retrieval bias in the CO profile larger than 10%. Validation of both MOPITT Level 1 (calibrated satellite radiances) and Level 2 (CO profile and total column retrievals) products is primarily based on comparisons of MOPITT results with in-situ profiles acquired as part of a program conducted by NOAA’s Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory. Regular sampling flights have been made at five globally-distributed sites. The goal of the work presented here is to identify and quantify MOPITT radiance biases using the CMDL in-situ data in a manner that accounts for all significant sources of error. These potential error sources include local surface characteristics (e.g. surface emissivity), proximity to CO emission sources, in-situ vertical sampling characteristics, and MOPITT cloud-clearing performance. By minimizing errors associated with each of these effects, we show that the goal of quantifying MOPITT radiance biases to within 1% is realistic.
Deeter, M. N., J. Gille, D. Edwards, J. L. Attie, J. Warner, G. Francis, D. Ziskin, J. Drummond, and G. Mand (2001b), The EOS MOPITT instrument:validation and early results, vol. 3, pp. 1222–1224 vol.3.
Launched on the EOS Terra satellite on December 18, 1999, the MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) instrument has been observing tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH_4 ) since March, 2000. The instrument is now fully functional, and the retrieval algorithms are now being validated. Because of the pioneering aspect of this instrument, validation is a particularly important phase of operations and is the main emphasis of this paper
Gille, J., J. Drummond, D. Edwards, G. Mand, M. Deeter, G. Francis, B. Khattatov, J. Lamarque, J. Warner, and S. Ho (2001), MOPITT Retrievals of Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide (CO), AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, 51.
The MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) experiment uses an 8-channel correlation radiometer measuring upwelling thermal radiance and reflected sunlight at 4.7 mm and 2.3 mm, respectively, to determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of tropospheric CO. Some features of the instrument will be briefly noted. MOPITT was launched on the Terra satellite at the end of 1999, and has now collected over a year’s worth of data. After some initial adjustments of the forward model to account for instrumental effects, the initial (beta) level retrievals show horizontal, vertical and seasonal variations that are qualitatively and quantitatively reasonable, although the detailed validation is still in its early stages. Results show that regions of biomass burning, notably in Africa and S. America, are major sources, with traceable plumes transporting CO for thousands of kilometers. A large source in SE Asia also releases large amounts of CO into the atmosphere that can be followed across the Pacific to the W. Coast of N. America. Finally, the status of initial validation will be discussed, and potential improvements in future data will be noted.
Khattatov, B., J. Lamarque, G. Petron, V. Yudin, J. Gille, D. Edwards, L. Lyjak, D. Ziskin, G. Francis, M. Deeter, G. Brasseur, J. Drummond, P. Rasch, L. Emmons, D. Kinnison, S. Waters, C. Granier, and D. Hauglustaine (2001), Mopitt CO Measurements: Assimilation and Inverse Modeling, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.
The MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) instrument on board the NASA Terra satellite has beet taking measurements of tropospheric carbon monoxide since March of 2000. MOPITT along-the-track observations are irregular in both time and space and they contain gaps while it is highly desirable to have data presented on a uniform, space (latitude, longitude, and height) and time grid. In addition, MOPITT averaging kernels are fairly wide, meaning that an observation is actually a weighted mean taken over a portion of the true, unknown CO profile. Data assimilation allows one to overcome some of these limitations and to map MOPITT measurements onto regular time-space grid. In addition, it opens possibilities for expanding our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and dynamics via systematic comparisons of model and observations. In this talk we present results of assimilation of MOPITT measurements of carbon monoxide in the global chemistry transport model MOZART 2. MOPITT measurements provide a unique opportunity to better understand surface sources and sinks of carbon monoxide. Such task, however, is made difficult due to chemical interactions of carbon monoxide with OH and other atmospheric chemicals. These interactions make the relationship between local concentrations of CO and its surface emissions non-linear. We review challenges arising in inverse modeling of emissions of chemically active gases and present some results of our work on inversion of surface sources of CO from MOPITT data
Lamarque, J., B. Khattatov, D. Edwards, V. Yudin, and J. Gille (2001), Assimilation of MOPITT CO: methods and application, AGU Spring Meeting Abstracts, 51.
In this paper, we describe the methods we use for the assimilation of the retrieved MOPITT CO in the three-dimensional chemistry transport model MOZART. We use the created gridded fields to identify transport regimes in the troposphere. In particular, by studying the evolution of CO plumes from biomass burning, we can identify different transport patterns for the African and South American fires, in agreement with the TRACE-A findings.
McMillan, W. W., M. L. McCourt, R. O. Knuteson, P. Antonelli, and H. Revercomb (2001), Retrievals of Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Abundances from the Scanning High Resolution Interferometer Sounder on-board the ER-2 During SAFARI 2000, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A30.
We present the first retrievals of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) from the Scanning High Resolution Interferometer Sounder (SHIS) during SAFARI 2000 (S2K). With a multi-month lifetime and as a major gaseous component of biomass burning, CO is an excellent tracer of atmospheric motions and plays a critical role as a precursor to tropospheric ozone production. Flying on-board the ER-2 during S2K, SHIS accumulated approximately 90 hours of data containing nearly 650,000 infrared spectra covering the spectral region from 3.3 to 15 microns at a resolution of 1 cm-1 (1 cm optical path difference). CO retrievals are performed in the 4.67 micron band using an algorithm previously utilized for the HIS airborne instrument for flights over the United States in 1993 and 1995 and since adapted for CO retrievals from ground-based FTIR instruments. Sensitivity and validation studies show such CO retrievals from airborne spectra are indicative of the total CO column and/or the mean free tropospheric CO mixing ratio. In this first look at the voluminous SHIS dataset, particular attention is paid to the Timbavati fire observed on September 7, 2000 and the flight over the Okvanga Delta on August 27, 2000. Preliminary comparisons to airborne in situ CO measurements and retrievals from the MOPITT instrument in orbit on-board the Terra satellite also will be presented. Our primary goals for S2K SHIS CO research include validation of MOPITT CO retrievals and process studies such as transboundary pollution transport and regional green-up.
Yudin, V. A. (2001), Zonal Mean Diagnostics of the Transport Properties of GCMs and DASs, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts, A148.
The chemistry transport models (CTMs) aim to reproduce the observed distributions of the long-lived and short-lived species in the troposphere and stratosphere, including their annnual and interannual variations and long-term trends. Various archived dynamics have been used by modellers to drive CTMs, including 3-D transport fields from general circulation models (GCMs) and data assimilation systems (DASs). We briefly review our zonal mean diagnostics package for evaluation of the transport properties of GCMs and DASs, highlighting some results that can be seen from the annual evolution of the monthly mean transport parameters. The package includes the trajectory code for particles dispersion and estimation of the zonal mean transport circulation and large-scale eddy mixing using the Eulerian tracer model.Comparative examples will be presented for the 2000 NCEP and ECMWF DASs, and MACCM2-95 GCM. The tracer model itself can be used to diagnose some subgrid vertical transport parameters from the global meteorological fields (e.g., convection and diffusion of tropospheric pollutants). We compare the first tropospheric CO retrievals from the MOPITT instrument on the Terra satellite with the CO-tracer simulations driven by the NCEP large-scale dynamics and convective transports that are estimated by different convective schemes from the NCEP archived history tapes.

2000

Lutz, B., D. P. Roy, C. Leff, S. Lewicki, E. Geier, D. Ziskin, K. Kilpatrick, and A. Chu (2000), A review of EOS Terra quality assessment, vol. 5, pp. 2092–2095 vol.5.
Terra is the flagship platform of NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) carrying the ASTER, CERES, MISR, MODIS, and MOPITT instruments in a polar Sun-synchronous orbit. These instruments sense approximately 200 gigabytes of data per day which are processed to produce a suite of standard products. QA involves the identification and labeling of those products which obviously and significantly do not conform to their expected accuracy/performance. This paper overviews the components of EOS QA and the different QA strategies developed by the Terra science teams

1999

Bailak, G. V., G. R. Davis, J. R. Drummond, L. Jounot, G. S. Mand, A. Phillips, and B. T. Tolton (1999), MOPITT airborne validation instrument: MOPPITT-A, vol. 3756, edited by A. M. Larar, pp. 468–474.
The Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere-Aircraft (MOPITT-A) instrument is being constructed at the University of Toronto, as a primary data validation tool for the Terra based MOPITT instrument. MOPITT-A is designed to operate aboard a NASA ER-2 research aircraft and as such must be rugged and field serviceable while maintaining the same characteristics as the satellite instrument. The resulting instrument is a hybrid of flight space components with commercial devices. Calibration data generated by both instruments, at the U of T Instrument Calibration Facility (ICF) will play a key role in data validation.
Bordi, F., S. P. Neeck, and C. J. Scolese (1999), Contribution of EOS Terra to Earth science, vol. 3870, edited by H. F. & J. B. Lurie, pp. 260–268. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.373194.
NASA’s first Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite, Terra (formerly known as EOS AM-1), is scheduled for launch in the fall of 1999. This launch will begin a comprehensive monitoring program of solar radiation, the atmosphere, the oceans, and the Earth’s continents from a single space-based platform. Specific scientific objectives of Terra include providing the first state distribution of the main Earth- atmosphere coupled parameters; improving our ability to detect human impacts on climate and predicting climate change; providing observations for improving forecasts of the timing and geographical extent of transient climatic anomalies; improving seasonal and interannual predictions; developing technologies for disaster prediction, characterization, and risk reduction from wild-fires, volcanoes, floods, and droughts; and starting long-term monitoring of the change in global climate and environmental change. These objectives are supported by data from five scientific instruments: the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Radiometer (ASTER), the Clouds and Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES), the Multi- angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument. The raw instrument data will be archived and distributed to the scientific community after capture on the ground and processing to generate scientific data products. The nature of these science data products and their relevance to Earth science will be discussed along with Terra’s current status. Terra is managed by Goddard Space Flight Center.
Deeter, M. N., J. Wang, J. C. Gille, and P. L. Bailey (1999), Retrieval of tropospheric methane from MOPITT measurements: algorithm description and simulations, vol. 3756, edited by A. M. Larar, pp. 447–454.
Tropospheric concentrations of methane have been increasing at a rate of approximately 1%/year, though recent measurements suggest some slowing in this trend. Increased concentrations of methane, a greenhouse gas, will have significant consequences for tropospheric chemistry and climate on a global scale. Characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of methane is one goal of the MOPITT (Measurement of Pollution In The Troposphere) instrument included on the EOS Terra satellite. This instrument includes spectral channels designed to measure methane total column with approximately 1% precision with a spatial resolution of approximately 22 X 22 km. Retrieval of the methane total column will be accomplished by the MOPITT instrument from measurements of solar radiation reflected at the earth’s surface. Gas correlation radiometry will be used to separate the spectral signature of methane in the upwelling radiance from features produced by other trace gases. The retrieval algorithm is based on maximum likelihood and uses an initial guess profile and methane total column variance estimates provided by aircraft in-situ measurements. In this talk, we will describe features of the retrieval algorithm in detail and present results of retrieval simulations conducted to test the sensitivity of the retrieval algorithm to various sources of error.
Drummond, J. R., P. L. Bailey, G. Brasseur, G. R. Davis, J. C. Gille, G. D. Peskett, H. K. Reichle, N. Roulet, G. S. Mand, and J. C. Mcconnell (1999), Early mission planning for the MOPITT instrument, vol. 3756, edited by A. M. Larar, pp. 396–402.
The Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument will monitor the global concentrations of carbon monoxide and methane. It will be flown on the Earth Observing Satellite, Terra (EOS-AM1), scheduled for launch late in 1999. This paper describes the proposed early mission operations of MOPITT.
Francis, G. L., D. P. Edwards, and J. C. Gille (1999), Channel radiance calculations for MOPITT forward modeling and operational retrievals, vol. 3756, edited by A. M. Larar, pp. 429–436.
The MOPITT (Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere) instrument, to be launched on the Earth Observing System Terra platform, employs gas-correlation spectroscopy to measure profiles of tropospheric carbon monoxide and the total column of methane. The modeling of the instrument, and the associated radiative transfer, comprise the forward model employed in the retrieval calculations. The MOPITT forward model has been implemented through a hierarchy of radiation codes whose salient features are reviewed here.
Gille, J. C., J. R. Drummond, J. Wang, D. P. Edwards, M. N. Deeter, B. Khattatov, J.-F. Lamarque, J. Warner, and D. Ziskin (1999), EOS MOPITT experiment: extracting the information from the measurements, vol. 3756, edited by A. M. Larar, pp. 403–408.
This paper will serve as an overview of the challenges to the recovery of information on atmospheric CO and CH(subscript 4) from the measurements made by the MOPITT instrument that has been described by Drummond et al. It will also provide a context and introduction to several of the following papers that go into greater detail on particular topics, and outline plans for the data processing. Here we briefly outline the principles of correlation radiometry as used by MOPITT, and introduce the principles behind the retrievals. After noting plans for data processing, we discuss our approach to data validation, and the ability to see global distributions of CO in the MOPITT data.
Mand, G. S., G. V. Bailak, Z. Z. Yu, B. T. Tolton, N. Mak, and J. R. Drummond (1999a), Early look at near-real MOPITT data, vol. 3756, edited by A. M. Larar, pp. 419–428.
The Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument will monitor the global concentrations of carbon monoxide and methane. It will be flown on the Earth Observing Satellite, EOS-AM1, scheduled for launch late in 1999. This paper describes the analysis of a twenty four hour data set that was recorded during the latter stages of testing at the University of Toronto Instrument Characterization Facility (ICF). This data set represents the best “near real time” contiguous data available and it is being used to help understand the instrument behavior and characteristics, as well as with algorithm development with the goal of the University of Toronto team being to determine the gain, offset and noise parameters for all channels from the in-flight calibration system.
Mand, G. S., G. V. Bailak, Z. Z. Yu, B. T. Tolton, E. Mckernan, and J. R. Drummond (1999b), Preflight testing of the MOPITT instrument, vol. 3756, edited by A. M. Larar, pp. 409–418.
The Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument will monitor the global concentrations of carbon monoxide and methane. It will be flown on the Earth Observing Satellite, EOS-AM1, scheduled for launch late in 1999. This paper primarily describes the pre-flight testing conducted at the University of Toronto, Instrument Characterization Facility (ICF) and will also very briefly describe testing, post integration to the spacecraft at the Lockheed Martin, Valley Force integration and test facility and at the Vandenburg launch site.
Mckernan, E., L. Yurganov, B. T. Tolton, and J. R. Drummond (1999), MOPITT validation using ground-based IR spectroscopy, vol. 3756, edited by A. M. Larar, pp. 486–491.
MOPITT is a nadir-viewing gas correlation radiometer due to be launched aboard the EOS Terra platform. The feasibility of MOPITT data validation using ground-based sun-viewing spectrometers of moderate resolution is investigated. Several instruments with a spectral resolution of approximately 0.2 cm(superscript -1) are now operating in Russia and in China for the monitoring of CO and CH(subscript 4). A spectrometer of this type has been tested and improved at the University of Toronto. It has also been compared with other spectroscopic instruments in field conditions. The results of these comparisons, and the prospects for further work are presented and discussed.
Smith, M. W., S. R. Shertz, and N. Delen (1999), Remote sensing of atmospheric carbon monoxide with the MOPITT Airborne Test Radiometer (MATR), vol. 3756, edited by A. M. Larar, pp. 475–485.
The MOPITT Airborne Test Radiometer (MATR) uses gas filter correlation radiometry to measure tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) with three optical channels or methane (CH(subscript 4)) with one channel. MATR uses the same gas correlation techniques as does the MOPITT satellite instrument, namely length modulation and pressure modulation MATR data serves to test retrieval techniques for converting infrared radiometric data into atmospheric CO, or CH(subscript 4) amounts. MATR will also be applied to MOPITT data validation. This paper gives an overview of the MATR instrument design; it discusses the results of laboratory testing and calibration; and it presents results from recent flights.
Tolton, B. T., L. Yurganov, E. Mckernan, A. Predoi-Cross, and E. I. Grechko (1999), Intercalibration of medium-resolution grating spectrometers for MOPITT validation, vol. 3756, edited by A. M. Larar, pp. 492–499.
The validation of MOPITT measurements of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH(subscript 4)) will require independent, simultaneous, co-located measurements from ground- and aeroplane-based instruments. Recently, a program of MOPITT validation measurements in Russia and Canada has been proposed. This program will use three (nearly) identical Russian-made medium-resolution grating spectrometers (known as Sarcophagus) capable of measuring the atmospheric column concentration of CO and CH(subscript 4). Two of these instruments are located in Russia, and one in Canada. The similarity of these instruments provides the opportunity of acquiring a highly correlated validation dataset from diverse locations around the globe. As part of this program, we are proposing to inter- calibrate these instruments using a set of standard gas cells. These cells will be regularly shipped between the instruments for calibration and inter-comparison purposes. These measurements will be made relative to measurements from a very high-resolution Difference Frequency Laser Spectrometer (DFLS) located at the University of Toronto. In this paper we present the results of a test of this inter-calibration experiment using a single CO gas cell and involving Sarcophagus, a high resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) and the University of Toronto DFLS.
Wang, J., M. N. Deeter, J. C. Gille, and P. L. Bailey (1999), Retrieval of tropospheric carbon monxide profiles from MOPITT: algorithm description and retrieval simulation, vol. 3756, edited by A. M. Larar, pp. 437–446.
The Measurement of Pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT) instrument is an eight-channel gas correlation radiometer to be launched on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft in 1999. Its main measurement objectives are tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) profiles and total column. This paper gives a detailed description of MOPITT CO retrieval algorithm, which derives total CO column and tropospheric CO mixing ratios at a number of atmospheric pressure levels from MOPITT radiance observations. Retrieval performance evaluation using simulated MOPITT data are discussed.
Warner, J., J. C. Gille, D. P. Edwards, and P. L. Bailey (1999), Cloud detection and clearing for the MOPITT instrument, vol. 3756, edited by A. M. Larar, pp. 455–460.
The Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument, which will be launched on the Terra spacecraft, is designed to measure the tropospheric CO and CH(subscript 4) at a nadir-viewing geometry. The measurements are taken at 4.7 micrometer in the thermal region, and 2.3 and 2.2 micrometer in the solar region for CO mixing ratio retrieval, CO total column amount and CH(subscript 4) column amount retrieval, respectively. To ensure the required measurement accuracy, it is critical to identify and remove any cloud contamination to the channel signals. In this study, we develop an algorithm to detect the cloudy pixels, to reconstruct clear column radiance for pixels with partial cloud covers, and to estimate equivalent cloud top positions under overcast conditions to enable CO profile retrievals above clouds. The MOPITT channel radiances, as well as the first guess calculations, are simulated using a fast forward model with input atmospheric profiles from ancillary data sets. The precision of the retrieved CO profiles and total column amounts in cloudy atmospheres is within the expected plus or minus 10% range. Validations of the cloud detecting thresholds with MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) data and MATR (MOPITT Airborne Test Radiometer) measurements are also carried out and will be presented separately.
Ziskin, D., J. Warner, P. L. Bailey, and J. C. Gille (1999), Validating MOPITT cloud detection techniques with MAS images, vol. 3756, edited by A. M. Larar, pp. 461–467.
The Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) experiment will measure the amount of methane and carbon monoxide in the Earth’s atmosphere utilizing spectroscopy in the near Infrared (IR) (2.2, 2.3, and 4.7 micrometer). In this wavelength region, clouds confound the retrieval of methane and carbon monoxide by shielding both the surface and atmospheric emission below the clouds from MOPITT. A technique has been developed to detect cloudy pixels, and an algorithm has been developed to estimate clear sky radiance from cloud contaminated pixels. This process is validated using images from the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS). MAS images are comprised of 50 m pixels in comparison to the larger 22 km MOPITT pixels. We aggregate the higher resolution MAS data to simulate MOPITT pixels. The aggregation is analyzed for clear and cloudy conditions and a cloud fraction is calculated. The aggregate is then averaged to recreate the scene that MOPITT would have seen. The cloud detection algorithms are applied to the degraded MAS image. The results are compared to validate the techniques imbedded in the standard MOPITT processing stream.

1998

Neeck, S. P., C. J. Scolese, and F. Bordi (1998), EOS AM-1, vol. 3498, edited by H. Fujisada, pp. 2–11.
The payload of the EOS AM-1 spacecraft consists of five scientific instruments: the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Radiometer (ASTER), the Clouds and the Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), the Multi-Angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument. The EOS AM-1 instruments will collect data on the physical and radiative properties of clouds (ASTER, CERES, MISR, MODIS); on air-land and air-sea exchanges of energy, carbon, and water (ASTER, MISR, MODIS); and on vertical profiles of greenhouse gases (MOPITT). The EOS AM-1 spacecraft and its instruments are fully integrated and launch is expected in mid-1999.
Ranson, K. J., Y. Kaufman, D. Herring, G. J. Collatz, F. Bordi, and S.-C. Tsay (1998), Overview of EOS AM-1 platform and science, vol. 3, pp. 1442–1444 vol.3.
NASA’s Earth Observing System is poised to launch the first major platform for Earth remote sensing, EOS AM-1. The platform, scheduled for launch in late 1998, will have five instruments and acquire global data for a wide variety of scientific studies of the Earth’s land, oceans, and atmosphere. This paper discusses the unique technological advances incorporated into the design of the platform. The key Earth System Science observations are highlighted along with the plans for science outreach activities
Wang, J., J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, and J. R. Drummond (1998), Remote sensing of tropospheric carbon monoxide amd methane from space by MOPITT: validation plan and prelaunch activities, vol. 3501, edited by & Z.-H. G. J. Wang, B. Wu, T. Ogawa, pp. 417–428.
The measurement of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT) is an eight-channel gas correlation radiometer to be launched on EOS/AM1 spacecraft in 1999. The goal of the experiment is to support studies of the oxidizing capacity of the lower atmosphere on large scales by measuring the global distributions of carbon monoxide (CO) and methane and thus, will represent a significant advancement in the application of space based remote sensing to global tropospheric chemistry research. Validation of data processing algorithms and products is an essential component of the MOPITT project. Strategies and techniques to verify MOPITT measurement precision, accuracy, and resolutions will be described. Correlative measurements for MOPITT algorithm and data validation include measurements will be described. Correlative measurements for MOPITT algorithm and data validation include measurements by airborne remote sensing and in-situ techniques and ground-based spectroscopic techniques. The MOPITT data processing algorithms are being tested and validated using existing airborne and satellite observations before launch. Pre-launch validation campaigns have been conducted to intercompare different correlative measurement techniques and associated data processing algorithms.

1997

Neeck, S. P., C. J. Scolese, and F. Bordi (1997), EOS AM-1: launch-9 months, vol. 3221, edited by H. Fujisada, pp. 150–161.
EOS AM-1 is the first element of NASA’s Earth observing system (EOS). EOS, the centerpiece to Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE), will provide long-term well-calibrated satellite observations to determine the extent, causes, and regional consequences of global climate change. EOS AM-1 will obtain information about the physical and radiative properties of clouds; air-land and air-sea exchanges of energy, carbon, and atmosphere; and volcanology. It carries five advanced instruments: advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) provided by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan, clouds and Earth’s radiant energy system (CERES) provided by NASA’s Langley Research Center, multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) provided by NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, and measurements of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT) provided by the Canadian Space Agency. The project is currently in its D (development) phase and is scheduled for a June 1998 launch. All flight model instruments have been delivered and integrated with the spacecraft. The process of functional, compatibility, comprehensive performance, and environmental testing at the spacecraft-level is currently underway. During the next six months, this will be completed and the spacecraft will be prepared for shipment to the launch site. Results of these activities and the current development status are discussed. The EOS AM-1 project is managed by Goddard Space Flight Center.

1996

Drummond, J. R., G. S. Mand, and G. V. Bailak (1996), Calibration of the MOPITT instrument for EOS, vol. 2830, edited by P. B. H. & J. Wang, pp. 246–252. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.256118.
The measurement of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT) instrument is designed to globally map carbon monoxide and methane concentrations in the lower atmosphere from space. It will be launched on NASA’s EOS-AM1 platform in mid-1998. The MOPITT engineering model has been undergoing tests at the University of Toronto Instrument Characterization Facility and the flight model will be tested in the same facility in a few months. The tests to be performed and some of the results form the engineering model are discussed.
Pan, L., J. C. Gille, C. D. Rodgers, D. P. Edwards, P. L. Bailey, L. A. Rokke, and J. Wang (1996), Analysis and characterization of the retrieval algorithm for measuring tropospheric CO using the MOPITT instrument, vol. 2830, edited by P. B. H. & J. Wang, pp. 159–168. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.256113.
We have developed a retrieval algorithm for deriving the tropospheric CO profile and column amount from the radiances measured by the Measurements of Pollution in the troposphere instrument. The main components of the algorithm are a fast radiative transfer model, based on the GENLN2 line-by-line model, and a maximum likelihood inversion method. The retrieval a priori information is derived from the results of several aircraft in situ measurements and a 3D chemical- transport model. This paper discusses the CO retrieval algorithm with an emphasis on the analysis and characterization of the algorithm. Forward model and retrieval sensitivities, along with the a priori information used in the retrieval are discussed in terms of their orthogonal components. Examples of ensemble retrieval experiments are also included.
Smith, M. W., and S. R. Shertz (1996), Current plans and status of MOPITT Algorithm Test Radiometer (MATR), vol. 2820, edited by W. L. Barnes, pp. 78–86. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.258113.
The primary objective for the MOPITT algorithm test radiometer (MATR) is to support the pre-launch testing of data retrieval algorithms for the MOPITT satellite instrument. Particular areas of concern in the retrieval are the effects of variable ground reflectance, the operation of the PMR, the accuracy of the CH4 spectral data in the HITRAN data base, and the calculated interference from water vapor. The review panel for the MOPITT algorithm theoretical basis document strongly encouraged a ground-air field effort to obtain measurements of the real atmosphere with prototype instruments. The plans for MATR include three detection channels. Channel one will use a length modulator cell (LMC) followed by a detector system with a spectral bandpass near 2.3 micrometer. This LMC will be filled with CO (or alternatively with CH4) to make total column measurements that are strongly weighted near the surface. Channel two will use the same length modulator cell (LMC) as channel one, but it will use a detector system with a spectral bandpass near 4.6 micrometer. This channel will be sensitive to CO primarily in the free troposphere. Channel three will use a pressure modulator cell (PMC) followed by a detector system with a spectral bandpass also near 4.6 micrometer. This channel will be sensitive to CO primarily in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. A first round of laboratory, ground-based atmospheric, and airborne measurements have been completed to date using the 2.3 micrometer CH4 channel. The current status of MATR will be presented, along with results obtained to date.
Tolton, B. T., and J. R. Drummond (1996), Calibration of a length-modulated radiometer, vol. 2830, edited by P. B. H. & J. Wang, pp. 253–263. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.256130.
MOPITT is a satellite instrument which will be launched in 1998 on the EOS-AM1 platform of the Earth Observing System. The primary objective of the MOPITT instrument is to enhance our knowledge of the lower atmosphere by measuring atmospheric profiles of carbon monoxide (CO) and methane. Operationally MOPITT will employ a new form of correlation radiometer known as the length modulated radiometer (LMR). To date, the LMR has been successfully implemented in a ground-based remote sounding instrument measuring CO, and is currently being implemented on two airplane-based instruments known as MATR and MOPITT-A. The operating principle of the LMR is the modulation of a static gas cell path length by means of an optically inert filler material. This paper will describe aspects of the operation of an LMR. Topics that will be covered include a discussion of the sources of optical imbalance in the LMR and the radiometric calibration of the LMR with CO. An analysis of the sources of error in the radiometric calibration of an LMR will also be presented.

1995

Evans, C. E., and B. D. Ross (1995), Lens design for the MOPITT orbiting spectrometer, vol. 2553, edited by M. S. S. & B. F. Andresen, pp. 425–435. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.221374.
The measurement of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT), is an experiment on the earth observing satellite, scheduled for launch in 1999. The instrument is an infrared spectrometer which will measure concentrations of carbon monoxide and methane in the atmosphere. This paper describes the optical mechanical design for the MOPITT qualification model lens systems.
Neeck, S. P., C. J. Scolese, and F. Bordi (1995), EOS-AM1: project update, vol. 2583, edited by H. F. & M. N. Sweeting, pp. 2–15.
EOS-AM1 is the initial component of NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS). EOS serves as the centerpiece for Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) and is to provide satellite observations to determine extent, causes, and regional consequences of global climate change. EOS-AM1 is specifically focused on the characterization of terrestrial and oceanic surfaces; clouds, radiation, and aerosols; and the earth’s radiative balance. It carries five advanced instruments: advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER), clouds and earth’s radiant energy system (CERES), multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR), moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), and measurements of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT). They are provided by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan, NASA’s Langley Research Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, and the Canadian Space Agency, respectively. The project is currently in its C/D phase and is maintaining schedule for a June 1998 launch. During the past year all of the instruments and the spacecraft successfully completed their critical design reviews (CDRs) and engineering model fabrication, integration, and testing. Fabrication and integration of flight model hardware is underway. Results of these activities and the current development status are discussed. The EOS-AM1 project is managed by Goddard Space Flight Center.
Pan, L., D. P. Edwards, J. C. Gille, P. L. Bailey, L. Rokke, and C. D. Rodgers (1995), Model studies and retrieval algorithm development for the MOPITT experiment [2578-26], vol. 2578, edited by D. K. L. & E. P. Shettle, p. 154. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.228936.
The Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPJTF) instrument is a spaceborne gas correlation radiometer designed to measure CO and CH4 in the troposphere. This instrument has been selected to be on board of the Earth Observing System’s first platform, EOS-AM, which is scheduled for launch in 1998. A maximum likelihood retrieval algorithm has been selected for the MOPITT CO measurement in clear sky conditions. Performance of the algorithm has been evaluated. This paper describes the algorithm and presents the preliminary results of numerical retrieval experiments.
Scolese, C. J., S. P. Neeck, and F. Bordi (1995), EOS-AM1: current status, vol. 2317, edited by W. L. B. & B. J. Horais, pp. 112–123.
EOS-AM1 is the first element of NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS). The primary goal of EOS, which serves as the centerpiece of Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE), is to provide satellite observations to determine the extent, causes, and regional consequences of global climate change. The EOS series of spacecraft will provide continuous, well calibrated data sets over a period of fifteen years. The EOS-AM1 instrument complement is tailored to the characterization of terrestrial and oceanic surfaces; clouds, radiation, and aerosols; and the earth’s radiative balance. In addition, vertical profiles of important tropospheric greenhouse gases, the contribution of volcanoes to climate, and ocean primary productivity will be measured. The payload consists of five advanced facility and principal investigator (PI) instruments: advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER), clouds and earth’s radiant energy system (CERES), multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR), moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS), and measurements of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT). These instruments are being provided by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan, Langley Research Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Goddard Space Flight Center, and the Canadian Space Agency, respectively. The project is currently in its C/D phase and is on-track in its development for a June 1998 launch. The EOS-AM project is managed by Goddard Space Flight Center.

1994

Drummond, J. R., G. V. Bailak, and G. Mand (1994), Measurements of carbon monoxide and methane from space, vol. 2, pp. 681–683 vol.2.
The Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument is designed to measure carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH_4 ) in the troposphere from space and will be launched as part of the EOS AM-1 payload in mid-1998. The accuracy of the measurements is required to be 10% for CO with profile information and 1% for the CH_4 column. These targets impose strict design requirements on the instrument. MOPITT operates by measuring the upwelling radiation from the atmosphere and uses high-performance detectors, narrow spectral filters and correlation spectroscopy to achieve its objectives. The performance of the instrument and its long-term accuracy depend upon the correct implementation of the various measurement strategies, proper calibration of the entire system and validation of the experiment after launch. The major focus of an instrument of this type is the manner by which the radiances are interpreted in terms of the concentration profiles they represent. This involves aspects of instrument design, spectral modelling, retrieval techniques and validation activities. Some of the difficulties inherent in the measurement technique are the practicalities of a space instrument as opposed to a laboratory or ground-based experiment, the presence of interfering gases and the interaction of the calibration with the measurement accuracy and precision.
Gille, J. C., L. Pan, M. W. Smith, and P. L. Bailey (1994), Retrieval of carbon monoxide profiles and total methane columns from MOPITT measurements, vol. 2, pp. 684–686 vol.2.
The Measurement of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument is designed to measure CO and CH_4 in the troposphere from a satellite platform. This instrument has been selected to be on the Earth Observing System (EOS)’s AM platform, which is scheduled to be launched in 1998. The authors present the development of retrieval algorithms and the simulation experiments performed to evaluate the algorithms and to understand certain measurement issues. The MOPITT instrument is a gas correlation spectrometer. It makes measurements in three spectral regions. The objective is to measure the CO vertical distribution from O to 15 km within 10% accuracy and the CH_4 column amount within 1% accuracy. There are four radiometers making measurements in the thermal band at 4.7 mu;m, which will be used to obtain profile information about the tropospheric CO distribution. Two short-wave solar reflectance channels will be used at 2.3 and 2.2 mu;m to measure total column amounts of CO and CH,, respectively.
Sakuma, F., M. Kobayasi, and A. Ono (1994), ASTER round-robin radiometers for the preflight cross-calibration of EOS AM-1 instruments, vol. 4, pp. 1995–1997 vol.4.
The combined use of data of different sensors on satellites for the Earth observation have been desired. For that purpose the radiometric and spectral calibration of the sensors in the preflight phase are very important. The EOS AM-1 to be launched in 1998 has five sensors on it, that is, the ASTER, MODIS, MISR, MOPITT and CERES. For the cross comparison of their working standard large integrating spheres (LIS), round-robin measurements are planned in the visible and near- and shortwave-infrared region. The round-robin (RR) radiometers are developed in the NRLM for the this purpose, especially among the ASTER, MODIS and MISR. Three RR radiometers have the center wavelengths similar to the ASTER VNIR bands 1 to 3. The other two have the center wavelengths of the ASTER SWIR bands 4 and 6. The round-robin method is as follows. At first the NRLM characterizes the spectral responsivities of the RR radiometers and the spectral radiances of a transfer integrating sphere (TIS), Next the RR radiometers see the TIS. Then the RR radiometers and TIS are transported to the calibration site of each instrument. Then the stability of the RR radiometers will be checked against the TIS. Finally the RR radiometers see the LIS. Using the relative spectral radiance of the LIS, the authors can calculate the spectral radiance of the TIS averaged at each band. The detectors of the RR radiometers are silicon photodiodes for the VNIR region and germanium and indium-arsenide photodiodes for the SWIR region. The RR radiometers for the VNIR region have two interference filters, one for defining the band shape and the other for suppressing the out-of-band response
Smith, M. W. (1994), Bandpass optimization for total column measurements of atmospheric CO and CH_4 using a length modulated gas filter correlation radiometer, vol. 2, pp. 687–689 vol.2.
MOPITT, which will be carried aboard Platform-A of the Earth Observing System, will measure total column amounts of carbon monoxide and methane in the atmosphere by using length modulated gas filter correlation radiometers to measure the absorption of reflected solar infrared radiation. The carbon monoxide measurements will be made using the first overtone band, which is centered near 4260 cm^-1 . The methane measurements will be made using overtone and combination bands near 4400 cm^-1 . The center, width, and shape of the bandpass filters used to isolate the spectral bands must in each case satisfy the often conflicting requirements of maximizing the signal level and sensitivity to the gas of interest while minimizing the interference from other absorbing gases (notably water vapor). The filter parameters must simultaneously remain within the bounds of current manufacturing capabilities. The author used a general line-by-line radiative transfer code along with the HITRAN data base to calculate the sensitivity to the gases of interest and the interference from other gases as a function of filter center and width for a range of gas amounts. The results are presented in graphical form and interpreted.

1993

Drummond, J. R. (1993), Measurements of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT) instrument, vol. 1939, edited by W. L. Barnes, pp. 126–136. [online] Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.152839.
With increasing awareness of the potential for changes in the earth’s environment through natural and artificial mechanisms comes an enhanced desire to globally monitor more regions of the atmosphere. The chemical state of the troposphere is recognized as a significant area, although one where it is extremely difficult to make measurements due to the interfering effects of clouds and the nearby surface. The measurements of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT) instrument uses the principle of correlation spectroscopy to measure carbon monoxide (CO) amounts at three levels in the troposphere utilizing thermal radiation at 4.7 micrometers and the total column amount of CO and methane (CH4) using reflected sunlight around 2.4 micrometers . The MOPITT instrument will fly on the AM-1 platform of NASA’s Earth observing system (EOS) program in mid-1998. The instrument is being funded by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and the data processing by NASA. MOPITT has an international science team with members from Canada, the USA, and the UK.

1992

Gille, J. C., and G. Visconti (1992), The use of EOS for studies of atmospheric physics, p. 579. [online] Available from: http://search.proquest.com/science/docview/18224229/13D6CD9A7AC654112B3/65?accountid=28174 .
This volume contains the papers presented at the school held in Varenna concerned with the atmosphere and how the understanding of its behavior could be facilitated by the observations planned for the EOS (Earth Observing System). The paper presented were as follows: Prinn, R. G., Earth system science, p. 3-10; Dozier, J., The EOS data and information system (EOSDIS), p. 13-32; Marelli, L., The use of EOS for studies of atmospheric physics, p. 35-40; Brasseur, G. P. and Prinn, R. G., Biogenic and anthropogenic trace gases in the atmosphere, p. 45-62; Prinn, R. G., Tropospheric chemical models, p. 65-75; Drummond, J. R., Measurements of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT), p. 77-99; Beer, R., The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) for the Earth Observing System (EOS), p. 103-122; Molteni, F., Atmospheric low-frequency variability and the role of diabatic processes, p. 125-157; Gautier, C., Air-sea interactions and precipitation over the tropical oceans, p. 161-168; Rizzi, R. and Bonzagni, M. M., Principles of remote sensing of atmospheric parameters from space: application to the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), p. 173-201; Cess, R. D., Global climate, p. 209-214; Slingo, A., Satellite observations of clouds for climate studies, p. 217-222; Marinucci, M. R. and Giorgi, F., Regional climate modeling, p. 231-247; King, M. D., Remote sensing of cloud, aerosol and water vapor properties from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), p. 253-283; Dozier, J., HIRIS--NASA’s High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer for the Earth Observing System, p. 287-297; Yamaguchi, Y., Sato, I. and Tsu, H., ITIR design concept and science missions, p. 299-309; McIntyre, M. E., Atmospheric dynamcis; some fundamentals, with observational implications, p. 313-372; Holton, J. R., Dynamics of the middle atmosphere: its role in transport and troposphere-stratosphere coupling, p. 387-403; Visconti, G., Sassi, F. and Pitari, G., Transport in the middle atmosphere from satellite data, p. 407-417; Schoeberl, M. R. and Lait, L. R., Conservative-coordinate transformations for atmospheric measurements, p. 419-430; Gille, J. C. and Barnett, J. J., The High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS). An instrument for the study of global change, p. 433-449; McCleese, D. J., The Stratospheric Wind Infrared Limb Sounder: investigation of atmospheric dynamics and transport from EOS, p. 451-461; Isaksen, I. S. A., Stratospheric chemistry with emphasis on the lower stratosphere, p. 463-477; Russell, J. M., III, The Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere Using Far-Infrared Emission Experiment (SAFIRE), p. 481-483; and Waters, J. W., Submillimeter heterodyne spectroscopy and remote sensing of the upper atmosphere, p. 491-575.

1991

Wilson, S., and J. Dozier (1991), NASA Selects first EOS payload, Eos Trans. AGU, 72(9), 97–104, doi:10.1029/90EO00072.
On January 18, NASA selected 11 “instrument investigations” for the first satellite of the Earth Observing System (EOS), which is the centerpiece of NASA’s Mission to Planet Earth. The instruments are AIRS/AMSU-A/-B, ASTER, CERES, EOSP, HIRDLS, LIS, MISR, MODIS-N/-T, STIKSCAT, and—pending resolution of technical issues—MIMR and MOPITT. In addition, HIRIS has been confirmed for development and tentatively selected for a subsequent flight, while ACRIM has been selected for future flight. The EOS satellite, to be launched aboard a Titan-IV vehicle from the Western Test Range in 1998, is the first of the three-satellite EOS-A series. Each satellite will have a 5-year design life and will produce a 15-year-long global data set. The series’ primary goal is to make measurements related to potential global warming and other critical aspects of global change, including the Earth’s radiation balance, atmospheric circulation, air-sea interaction, biological productivity, and land-surface properties.


Publication Count by Year

YearPublications
1991 1
1992 1
1993 1
1994 4
1995 4
1996 4
1997 1
1998 3
1999 14
2000 1
2001 8
2002 37
2003 31
2004 46
2005 21
2006 33
2007 30
2008 26
2009 35
2010 29
2011 1
2012 2
2013 7
2014 2
2015 2
2016 15
2017 28
2018 1
Total388
Compiled on 11 April 2018

UCAR/NCAR Share

                  

                  

ACOM | Atmospheric Chemistry Observations & Modeling